Cardiovascular Disorders

Acute Coronary Syndrome


Amsterdam, E.A., Wender, K.N., Brindis, R.G., Casey, D.E., Ganiats, T.G., Holmes, D.R. (2014). AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes. Circulation, 130, 2354-2394. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000133


Coven, D.L. (2019). Acute coronary syndrome medication. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1910735-medication#10


Switaj, T.L., Christensen, S.R., & Brewer, D.M. (2017). Acute coronary syndromes: current treatment. American Family Physician, 95 (4), 232-240. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0215/p232.html


Warnica, J. (2018). Complications of acute coronary syndromes. Merck Manual Professional Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/coronary-artery-disease/acute-coronary-syndromes-acs


Angina, Stable


Amsterdam, E.A, Wenger, N.K, et al. (2014). 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 64(24), e139-e228. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.09.017


Arnett, D.K., Blumenthal, R.S., Albert, M.A., et al. (2019). 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on clinical practice guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 74 (10), e177-e232. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.03.010


Fihn, S.D., Blankenship, J.C., Alexander, K.P., et al. (2014). 2014 ACC/AHA/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS focused update of the guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Journal of the American College Cardiology, 64 (18), 1929-1949. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.07.017


Goff, D. C., Lloyd-Jones, D. M., Bennett, G., et al. (2014). 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 63 (25), 2935-2959. doi 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.005


Ohman, E. M. (2016). Chronic stable angina. New England Journal of Medicine, 374 (12), 1167-1176. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcpl502240


Rousan, T. A., Mathew, S. T., & Thadani, U. (2017). Drug therapy for stable angina pectoris. Drugs, 77 (3), 265-284.


Anticoagulation


Barnes, G. D., Lucas, E., Alexander, G. C., & Goldberger, Z. D. (2015). National trends in ambulatory oral anticoagulant use. The American Journal of Medicine, 128(12), 1300-1305.


Brunton, L., Knollmann, B., & Hilal-Dandan, R. (Eds.) (2018). Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics.


Chan, W. S., Rey, E., Kent, N. E., Corbett, T., David, M., Douglas, M. J., & Smith, R. E. (2014). Venous thromboembolism and antithrombotic therapy in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, 36(6), 527-553. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1701-2163(15)30569-7


Doherty, J.U., Gluckman, T.J., Hucker, W.J. Januzzi, J.L., Ortel, T.L., Saxonhouse, S.J., & Spinler S. A (2017). 2017 ACC expert consensus decision pathway for periprocedural management of anticoagulation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Journal of American College of Cardiology, 69(7), 871-898. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2016.11.024


Fick, D. M., Semla, T. P., Steinman, M., Beizer, J., Brandt, N., ... & Flanagan, N. (2019). American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(4), 674-694. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jgs.15767


January, C. T., Wann, L. S., Calkins, H., Chen, L. Y., Cigarroa, J. E., Cleveland Jr, J. C., ... & Heidenreich, P. A. (2019). 2019 AHA/ACC/HRS focused update of the 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation. Circulation, 140(2), e125-e151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2019.01.024


Kearon, C., Akl, E. A., Ornelas, J., Blaivas, A., Jimenez, D., Bounameaux, H., Huisman, M., Moores, L. (2016). Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: CHEST guideline and expert panel report. CHEST, 149(2), 315-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2015.11.026


Polito, N. B., Kanouse, E., Jones, C. M., McCann, M., Refaai, M. A., & Acquisto, N. M. (2019). Effect of vitamin K administration on rate of warfarin reversal. Transfusion, 59(4), 1202-1208. https://doi.org/10.1111/trf.15146


Rechenmacher, S.J. & Fang, J.C. (2015). Bridging anticoagulation: primum non nocere. Journal of American College of Cardiology, 66(12). https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2015.08.002


Wilber, J. & Shian, B. (2017). Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Current therapy. American Family Physician, 95(5), 295-302.


Weitz, J.I. & Ginsberg, J.S. (2019). Venous thrombosis and embolism. In L. Goldman & A. Schafer (Eds.). Goldman-Cecil Medicine (26th ed).


Atrial Fibrillation


Al-Khatib, S.M., Allen Lapointe, N., Chatterjee, R., et al. (2013). Treatment of atrial fibrillation. Comparative effectiveness review 119. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. https://www.pcori.org/sites/default/files/PCORI-Executive-Summary-Treatment-of-Atrial-Fibrillation-120716.pdf


January, C. T., et al. (2019). 2019 AHA/ACC/HRS focused update of the 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation. Circulation, 140 e125-e151. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000665


Kovacs, R. J., Flaker, G. C., Saxonhouse, et al. (2015). Practical management of anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 65(13), 1340-1360. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.01.049


PDR Network. (2020). Amiodarone hydrochloride. Prescribers Digital Reference. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Amiodarone-Hydrochloride-Injection-amiodarone-hydrochloride-3234#5


PDR Network. (2020). Apixaban. Prescribers Digital Reference. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Eliquis-apixaban-3039#12


PDR Network. (2020). Dabigatran etexilate mesylate. Prescribers Digital Reference. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Pradaxa-dabigatran-etexilate-mesylate-100#1


PDR Network. Dronedarone. Prescribers Digital Reference. (2020). https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Multaq-dronedarone-522#15


Congenital Heart Disease in Children


Adler, D.A. (2017). Atrial septal defect. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/162914-overview#a8


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2018). Pediatric Practice Guidelines and Policies. (18th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics Publishing.


Bhimji, S. (2018). Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in adults. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2035949-overview


Bickley, L.S., & Szilagyi, P.G. (2016). Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. (12th ed). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Burns, C.E., Brady, M.A., Blosser, C., Starr, N.B., & Dunn, A.M. (2016). Pediatric Primary Care: A Handbook for Nurse Practitioners. (6th ed.) W.B. Saunders.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Data and statistics on congenital heart defects. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/heartdefects/data.html


Charpie, J. (2015). Pulmonary artresia with intact ventricular septum clinical presentation: history, physical. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/898167-overview


Charpie, J. (2017). Transposition of the great arteries. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/900574-overview


Domino, F.J., Baldor, R.A., Golding, J., & Stephens, M.B. (2020). The 5-Minute Clinical Consult 2020. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Hom, L.A., Martin, G.R. (2016). Newborn critical congenital heart disease screening using pulse oximetry: nursing aspects. American Journal of Perinatology, 33(11):1072-5. doi: 10.1055/s-0036-1586108


Kim, L.K. (2018). Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) medication: prostaglandins, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/891096-medication


Latin-Hermoso, M.R., Berger, S., Bhatt, A.B. (2017). The care of children with congenital heart disease in their primary medical home. Pediatrics. 140(5): e20172607. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-2607


Luke, A. (2018). Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/891096-overview


Mancini, M. (2016). Tricuspid atresia. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/158359-overview


McElhinney, D. (2019). Truncus arteriosus. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/892489-overview


Patnana, S. (2018). Coarctation of the aorta. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/895502-overview


Petterson, M. (2019). Pediatric complete atrioventricular septal defects. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/893914-overview#a5


Ramaswamy, P. (2015). Ventricular septal defects. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/892980-overview


Ren, X. (2019). Aortic stenosis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/150638-overview


Satou, G. (2019). Pediatric congestive heart failure. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2069746-overview


Satou, G. (n.d.). Lanoxin (digoxin) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more. Medscape. https://reference.medscape.com/drug/lanoxin-digoxin-342432#1


Spironolactone. (n.d.). Epocrates. https://online.epocrates.com/drugs/28210/spironolactone/Monograph


Stout, K. K., Daniels, C. J., Aboulhosn, J. A., Bozkurt, B., Broberg, C. S., Colman, J. M., Hare, G. F. V. (2019). 2018 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of adults with congenital heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation, 139 (14). doi: 10.1161/cir.0000000000000603


Wang, A., & Nguyen, T. (2015). Digoxin use in modern medicine. Medscape. https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/842364


Wilson, A. (2015). Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/899491-overview


Windle, M. (2018). Antibiotic prophylactic regimens for endocarditis: guidelines, dental procedures, respiratory tract, infected skin, skin structures, or musculoskeletal tissue procedures. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1672902-overview


Deep Vein Thrombosis


Becattini, C. & Agnelli, G. (2016). Treatment of venous thromboembolism with new anticoagulation agents. Journal of American College of Cardiology, 67(16): 1941-1955. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2016.01.072


Heit, J. A., Spencer, F. A. & White, R. H. (2016). The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, 41(10), 3-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11239-015-1311-6


Jacobs, B. & Henke, P. K. (2018). Evidence-based therapies for pharmacologic prevention and treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Surgery Clinics of North America, 98, 239-253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.suc.2017.11.001


Kearon, C., Akl, E. A., Ornelas, J., Blaivas, A., Jimenez, D., Moores, L. (2016). Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: CHEST guideline and expert panel report. Chest, 149(2), 315-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2015.11.026


Lim, W., Le Gal, G., Bates, S. M., Righini, M., Haramati, L. B., Mustafa, R. A. (2018). American Society of Hematology 2018 guidelines for the management of venous thromboembolism: diagnosis of venous thromboembolism. Blood Advances, 2(22), 3226-3256. https://doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018024828


Mazzolai, L., Aboyans, V., Ageno, W., Agnelli, G., Bauersachs, R., Brodmann, M. (2018). Diagnosis and management of acute deep vein thrombosis: a joint consensus document from the European Society of Cardiology Working Groups of Aorta and Peripheral Vascular Diseases and Pulmonary Circulation and Right Ventricular Function. European Heart Journal, 39(47), 4208-4218. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehx003


Zhao, S., Hong, X., Cao, j., Zhang, J., & Ma, P. (2020). Current evidence for pharmacological reversal using direct oral anticoagulants: What’s new? American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs, 20, 117-123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00366-0


Heart Failure


American Geriatrics Society. (2015). 2015 Updated Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 63(11), 2227-2246. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.13702


American Heart Association (2014). Get with the guideline HF patient management tool. http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@private/@wcm/@hcm/@gwtg/documents/downloadable/ucm_457483.pdf


Chow, S.L., Maisel, A.S., Anand, I., Bozkurt, B., de Boer, R.A., Felker, M., Fonarow, G.C., Greenberg, B., Januzzi, J.L., Kiernan, M.S., Liu, P.P., Wang, T.J., Yancy, C.W., Zile, M.R. (2017). Role of biomarkers for the prevention, assessment, and management of heart failure: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 135, e1054-e1091. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000490


Dumitru, I. (2018). Heart failure medication. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/163062-medication#11


Elkayam, U., Goland, S., Pieper, P., & Silversides, C. (2016). High-risk cardiac disease in pregnancy: Part II. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 68(5), 503-516. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.05.050


Farag, M., Mabote, T., Shoaib, A., Zhang, J., Nabhan, A.F., Clark, A.L., Cleland, J.G. (2015). Hydralazine and nitrates alone or combined for the management of chronic heart failure: A systematic review. International Journal of Cardiology, 196, 61-69. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.05.160


Fudim. M., Hernandez, A., & Felker, M. (2017). Role of volume redistribution in the congestion of heart failure. Journal of American Heart Association, 6(8), e006817. https://doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.006817


Mozzafarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, et al. on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. (2016). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2016 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 133, e38-e360. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000350


Murphy, N., Shanks, M., & Alderman, P. (2019). Management of heart failure using outpatient technology. Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 15(1), 12-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2018.07.004


PDR. (2020). Prescribers Digital Reference. https://www.pdr.net/


Savarese, G., & Hund, L. (2017). Global public health burden of heart failure. Cardiac Failure Review, 1(3), 7-11. doi: 10.15420/cfr.2016:25:2


Yancy C.W., Jessup, M., Bozkurt, B. (2013). 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task force on practice guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 62(16), e147-e239. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.05.019


Yancy, C.W., Jessup, M., Bozkurt, B. (2016). 2016 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update on new pharmacological therapy for heart failure: An update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000435


Yancy, C.W., Jessup, M., Bozkurt, B., et al. (2017). 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. Circulation, 137(7). https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000509


Heart Murmurs


Burns, C.E., Brady, M.A., Blosser, C., Starr, N.B., & Dunn, A.M. (2016). Cardiovascular disorders. In: Pediatric Primary Care: A Handbook for Nurse Practitioners. 6th edition. W.B. Saunders.


Christiansen, B. (2014). Endocarditis prophylaxis, Children. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2058895-overview


Domino, F., Baldor, R., Golding, J., Grimes, J., & Taylor, J. (2020). The 5-Minute Clinical Consult 2020. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Driscoll D.J. (2016). Clinical presentation and therapy of atrial septal defect. In: Rickert-Sperling S., Kelly R., Driscoll D. (Eds.) Congenital Heart Diseases: The Broken Heart. Springer Publishing.


Ferri, F.F. (2020). Aortic regurgitation. In: Ferri's 2020 Clinical Advisor. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier.


Ferri, F.F. (2020). Aortic stenosis. In: Ferri's 2020 Clinical Advisor. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier.


Ferri, F.F. (2020). Mitral valve prolapse. In: Ferri's 2020 Clinical Advisor. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier.


Healio. (2017). Heart murmurs topic review. From description to auscultation. https://www.healio.com/cardiology/learn-the-heart/cardiology-review/topic-reviews/heart-murmurs


Mangla, A. (2014). Heart Sounds. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1894036-overview#a8


Thomas, S.L. (2019). Physiology, cardiovascular murmurs. StatPearls. PMID: 30247833

Windle, M. (2018). Antibiotic prophylactic regimens for endocarditis. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1672902-overview#a30


Hyperlipidemia


American College of Cardiology. (2019). 2018 Guidelines on the management of blood cholesterol. Guidelines made simple. A selection of tables and figures. https://www.acc.org/~/media/Non-Clinical/Files-PDFs-Excel-MS-Word-etc/Guidelines/2018/Guidelines-Made-Simple-Tool-2018-Cholesterol.pdf


Burns, C.E., Brady, M.A., Blosser, C., Starr, N.B., & Dunn, A.M. (2016). Pediatric Primary Care: A Handbook for Nurse Practitioners (6th ed.). W.B. Saunders.


Cada, D. J. (2017). Drug Facts and Comparisons. Wolters Kluwer Health.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019). High Cholesterol Facts. https://www.cdc.gov/cholesterol/facts.htm


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019). National Center for Health Statistics. Cholesterol. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/cholesterol.htm


Grundy, S.M., Stone, N. J., Bailey, A. L. et al (2019). AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 3(24):3168-3209. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.11.002


Khera, A., Won, H.H., Peloso, G.M., Lawson, K.S., Bartz, T.M., Deng, X., van Leeuwen, E.M. … et al. (2016). Diagnostic yield and clinical utility of sequencing familial hypercholesterolemia genes in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 67(22) 2578-2589. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.03.520


Lenahan, C.M. & Harrigtoon, D. (2016). PCSK9 Inhibitors for familial hypercholesterolemia. The Nurse Practitioner Journal, 12(8); 577-578. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2016.05.005


Preventive Cardiology Nurses Association. (n.d.) Heart Healthy Toolbox: Navigating the hurdles. https://mk0pcnasitegr8fvdtdc.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Heart-Healthy-Toolbox-Combined.pdf


Rubenfire, M. & Lloyd-Jones, D. (2016). Expert consensus on role of non-statin therapies for LDL-C lowering for management of ASCVD Risk. American College of Cardiology. http://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/ten-points-to-remember/2016/03/30/11/58/2016-acc-expert-consensus-decision-pathway-on-the-role-of-nonstatin.


Hypertension


Benenson, I., Waldron, F. A., Bradshaw, M. J. (2020). Treating Hypertension in Older Adults: Beyond the Guidelines. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 32(3), 193-199. https://doi:10.1097/JXX.0000000000000220


Bickley, L.S., & Szilagyi, P.G. (2016). Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking (12th ed). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Burns, C.E., Brady, M.A., Blosser, C., Starr, N.B., & Dunn, A.M. (2016). Pediatric Primary Care: A Handbook for Nurse Practitioners (6th ed.). W.B. Saunders.


James, P.A., Oparil, S., Carter, B.L., Ortiz E, et al. (2014). 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults. Report from the panel members appointed to the eighth joint national committee (JNC8). JAMA. 311(5), 507-520. https://doi:10.1001/jama.2013.284427


Shoulders, B., & Powell, L. (2019). Reaching for goal: incorporating the latest hypertension guidelines into practice. Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 15(1), 102-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2018.09.011


Whelton, P.K., Carey, R.M., Aronow, W.S., Casey, D.E. Jr, Collins, K.J., Dennison Himmelfarb, C., et al. (2017). 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYP.0000000000000065


Kawasaki Disease


Cotts, T. B. (2017). AHA Scientific Statement on Kawasaki Disease. American College of Cardiology. https://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/ten-points-to-remember/2017/04/21/11/45/diagnosis-treatment-and-long-term-management-of-kawasaki-disease


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2017). Kawasaki syndrome. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.) APEA.


McCrindle, B. W., Rowley, A. H., Newburger, J. W. (2017). Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease: a scientific statement for health professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 135 (17), e927- e999. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000484


Rowley, A. H. (2018). Kawasaki disease: AHA statement and recommendations. Contemporary Pediatrics, 35 (10), https://www.contemporarypediatrics.com/pediatrics/kawasaki-disease-aha-statement-and-recommendations


Sosa, T. K., & Steele, R. W. (2018). Kawasaki disease. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/965367-overview


Peripheral Arterial Disease


Aboyans, V., Ricco, J.B., Bartelink, M.L., et al. (2018). 2017 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial diseases, in collaboration with the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS): Document covering atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteries. European Heart Journal. 39 (9), 763-816 https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehx095


Gerhard-Herman, M., Gornik, H., Barrett, C., Barshes, N., Corriere, M., Drachman, D, et al. (2016). 2016 AHA/ACC guideline on the management of patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease: executive summary. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 69 (11), 1465-1508. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000471


Hess, C. N., Hiatt, W. R. Antithrombotic therapy for peripheral artery disease in 2018. JAMA. 2018, 319 (22), 2329-2330. https://doi:10.1001/jama.2018.5422


Rheumatic Fever


Burns, C.E., Brady, M.A., Blosser, C., Starr, N.B., & Dunn, A.M. (2016). Pediatric Primary Care: A Handbook for Nurse Practitioners (6th ed.). W.B. Saunders.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Group A Streptococcal disease. https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-hcp/acute-rheumatic-fever.html


Gewitz, M. H., Baltimore, R. S., Tani, L. Y., Sable, C. A., Shulman, S. T., Carapetis, J., Kaplan, E. L. (2015). Revision of the Jones Criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever in the era of Doppler echocardiography. Circulation, 131 (20), 1806-1818. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000205


Martin, J. (2016). The Streptococcus pyogenes carrier state. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK374206/


Wallace, M. A. R. (2019). Rheumatic fever. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/236582-overview


Watkins, D.A., Johnson, C.O., Colquhoun, S.M., et al. (2017). Global, regional, and national burden of rheumatic heart disease, 1990-2015. New England Journal of Medicine. 377, 713-722. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1603693


Varicose Veins


Cohain, J. (2018). Varicose veins in pregnancy. Midwifery Today, 128 (128), 16-17. https://midwiferytoday.com/mt-articles/varicose-veins-in-pregnancy/


Cole, G., Nabili, S. (2016). Varicose veins and spider veins. MedicineNet. http://www.medicinenet.com/varicose_veins/article.htm


Deepak Sudheendra, M. (2014). Varicose vein stripping. Medline Plus. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002952.htm


Kshitij, A., Chandradip, P., Simran, B., Gurjit, S., & Harshad, G. (2018). A study of etiology of secondary varicose veins. Archives of Clinical and Experimental Surgery, 7 (3), 104-107. doi:10.5455/aces.20171001101706


Liaudginas, T., & Kazlauskaitė, V. (2017). Varicose veins surgical treatment: Endovenous laser ablation versus open surgery. Porto Biomedical Journal, 2 (5), 242-242. doi:10.1016/j.pbj.2017.07.154





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