Cardiovascular Disorders

Acute Coronary Syndrome

Amsterdam, E.A., Wender, K.N., Brindis, R.G., Casey, D.E., Ganiats, T.G., Holmes, D.R. (2014). AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes. Circulation, 130, 2354-2394. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000133

Coven, D.L. (2019). Acute coronary syndrome medication. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1910735-medication#10

Switaj, T.L., Christensen, S.R., & Brewer, D.M. (2017). Acute coronary syndromes: current treatment. American Family Physician, 95 (4), 232-240. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0215/p232.html

Warnica, J. (2018). Complications of acute coronary syndromes. Merck Manual Professional Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/coronary-artery-disease/acute-coronary-syndromes-acs

Angina, Stable

Amsterdam, E.A, Wenger, N.K, et al. (2014). 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 64(24), e139-e228. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.09.017

Arnett, D.K., Blumenthal, R.S., Albert, M.A., et al. (2019). 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on clinical practice guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 74 (10), e177-e232. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.03.010

Fihn, S.D., Blankenship, J.C., Alexander, K.P., et al. (2014). 2014 ACC/AHA/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS focused update of the guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Journal of the American College Cardiology, 64 (18), 1929-1949. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.07.017

Goff, D. C., Lloyd-Jones, D. M., Bennett, G., et al. (2014). 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 63 (25), 2935-2959. doi 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.005

Ohman, E. M. (2016). Chronic stable angina. New England Journal of Medicine, 374 (12), 1167-1176. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcpl502240

Rousan, T. A., Mathew, S. T., & Thadani, U. (2017). Drug therapy for stable angina pectoris. Drugs, 77 (3), 265-284.

Anticoagulation

Barnes, G. D., Lucas, E., Alexander, G. C., & Goldberger, Z. D. (2015). National trends in ambulatory oral anticoagulant use. The American Journal of Medicine, 128(12), 1300-1305.

Brunton, L., Knollmann, B., & Hilal-Dandan, R. (Eds.) (2018). Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics.

Chan, W. S., Rey, E., Kent, N. E., Corbett, T., David, M., Douglas, M. J., & Smith, R. E. (2014). Venous thromboembolism and antithrombotic therapy in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, 36(6), 527-553. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1701-2163(15)30569-7

Doherty, J.U., Gluckman, T.J., Hucker, W.J. Januzzi, J.L., Ortel, T.L., Saxonhouse, S.J., & Spinler S. A (2017). 2017 ACC expert consensus decision pathway for periprocedural management of anticoagulation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Journal of American College of Cardiology, 69(7), 871-898. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2016.11.024

Fick, D. M., Semla, T. P., Steinman, M., Beizer, J., Brandt, N., ... & Flanagan, N. (2019). American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(4), 674-694. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jgs.15767

January, C. T., Wann, L. S., Calkins, H., Chen, L. Y., Cigarroa, J. E., Cleveland Jr, J. C., ... & Heidenreich, P. A. (2019). 2019 AHA/ACC/HRS focused update of the 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation. Circulation, 140(2), e125-e151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2019.01.024

Kearon, C., Akl, E. A., Ornelas, J., Blaivas, A., Jimenez, D., Bounameaux, H., Huisman, M., Moores, L. (2016). Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: CHEST guideline and expert panel report. CHEST, 149(2), 315-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2015.11.026

Polito, N. B., Kanouse, E., Jones, C. M., McCann, M., Refaai, M. A., & Acquisto, N. M. (2019). Effect of vitamin K administration on rate of warfarin reversal. Transfusion, 59(4), 1202-1208. https://doi.org/10.1111/trf.15146

Rechenmacher, S.J. & Fang, J.C. (2015). Bridging anticoagulation: primum non nocere. Journal of American College of Cardiology, 66(12). https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2015.08.002

Wilber, J. & Shian, B. (2017). Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Current therapy. American Family Physician, 95(5), 295-302.

Weitz, J.I. & Ginsberg, J.S. (2019). Venous thrombosis and embolism. In L. Goldman & A. Schafer (Eds.). Goldman-Cecil Medicine (26th ed).

Atrial Fibrillation

Al-Khatib, S.M., Allen Lapointe, N., Chatterjee, R., et al. (2013). Treatment of atrial fibrillation. Comparative effectiveness review 119. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. https://www.pcori.org/sites/default/files/PCORI-Executive-Summary-Treatment-of-Atrial-Fibrillation-120716.pdf

January, C. T., et al. (2019). 2019 AHA/ACC/HRS focused update of the 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation. Circulation, 140 e125-e151. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000665

Kovacs, R. J., Flaker, G. C., Saxonhouse, et al. (2015). Practical management of anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 65(13), 1340-1360. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.01.049

PDR Network. (2020). Amiodarone hydrochloride. Prescribers Digital Reference. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Amiodarone-Hydrochloride-Injection-amiodarone-hydrochloride-3234#5

PDR Network. (2020). Apixaban. Prescribers Digital Reference. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Eliquis-apixaban-3039#12

PDR Network. (2020). Dabigatran etexilate mesylate. Prescribers Digital Reference. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Pradaxa-dabigatran-etexilate-mesylate-100#1

PDR Network. Dronedarone. Prescribers Digital Reference. (2020). https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Multaq-dronedarone-522#15

Congenital Heart Disease in Children

Adler, D.A. (2017). Atrial septal defect. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/162914-overview#a8

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2018). Pediatric Practice Guidelines and Policies. (18th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics Publishing.

Bhimji, S. (2018). Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in adults. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2035949-overview

Bickley, L.S., & Szilagyi, P.G. (2016). Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. (12th ed). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Burns, C.E., Brady, M.A., Blosser, C., Starr, N.B., & Dunn, A.M. (2016). Pediatric Primary Care: A Handbook for Nurse Practitioners. (6th ed.) W.B. Saunders.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Data and statistics on congenital heart defects. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/heartdefects/data.html

Charpie, J. (2015). Pulmonary artresia with intact ventricular septum clinical presentation: history, physical. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/898167-overview

Charpie, J. (2017). Transposition of the great arteries. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/900574-overview

Domino, F.J., Baldor, R.A., Golding, J., & Stephens, M.B. (2020). The 5-Minute Clinical Consult 2020. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Hom, L.A., Martin, G.R. (2016). Newborn critical congenital heart disease screening using pulse oximetry: nursing aspects. American Journal of Perinatology, 33(11):1072-5. doi: 10.1055/s-0036-1586108

Kim, L.K. (2018). Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) medication: prostaglandins, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/891096-medication

Latin-Hermoso, M.R., Berger, S., Bhatt, A.B. (2017). The care of children with congenital heart disease in their primary medical home. Pediatrics. 140(5): e20172607. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-2607

Luke, A. (2018). Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/891096-overview

Mancini, M. (2016). Tricuspid atresia. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/158359-overview

McElhinney, D. (2019). Truncus arteriosus. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/892489-overview

Patnana, S. (2018). Coarctation of the aorta. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/895502-overview

Petterson, M. (2019). Pediatric complete atrioventricular septal defects. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/893914-overview#a5

Ramaswamy, P. (2015). Ventricular septal defects. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/892980-overview

Ren, X. (2019). Aortic stenosis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/150638-overview

Satou, G. (2019). Pediatric congestive heart failure. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2069746-overview

Satou, G. (n.d.). Lanoxin (digoxin) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more. Medscape. https://reference.medscape.com/drug/lanoxin-digoxin-342432#1

Spironolactone. (n.d.). Epocrates. https://online.epocrates.com/drugs/28210/spironolactone/Monograph

Stout, K. K., Daniels, C. J., Aboulhosn, J. A., Bozkurt, B., Broberg, C. S., Colman, J. M., Hare, G. F. V. (2019). 2018 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of adults with congenital heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation, 139 (14). doi: 10.1161/cir.0000000000000603

Wang, A., & Nguyen, T. (2015). Digoxin use in modern medicine. Medscape. https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/842364

Wilson, A. (2015). Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/899491-overview

Windle, M. (2018). Antibiotic prophylactic regimens for endocarditis: guidelines, dental procedures, respiratory tract, infected skin, skin structures, or musculoskeletal tissue procedures. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1672902-overview

Deep Vein Thrombosis

Becattini, C. & Agnelli, G. (2016). Treatment of venous thromboembolism with new anticoagulation agents. Journal of American College of Cardiology, 67(16): 1941-1955. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2016.01.072

Heit, J. A., Spencer, F. A. & White, R. H. (2016). The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, 41(10), 3-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11239-015-1311-6

Jacobs, B. & Henke, P. K. (2018). Evidence-based therapies for pharmacologic prevention and treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Surgery Clinics of North America, 98, 239-253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.suc.2017.11.001

Kearon, C., Akl, E. A., Ornelas, J., Blaivas, A., Jimenez, D., Moores, L. (2016). Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: CHEST guideline and expert panel report. Chest, 149(2), 315-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2015.11.026

Lim, W., Le Gal, G., Bates, S. M., Righini, M., Haramati, L. B., Mustafa, R. A. (2018). American Society of Hematology 2018 guidelines for the management of venous thromboembolism: diagnosis of venous thromboembolism. Blood Advances, 2(22), 3226-3256. https://doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018024828

Mazzolai, L., Aboyans, V., Ageno, W., Agnelli, G., Bauersachs, R., Brodmann, M. (2018). Diagnosis and management of acute deep vein thrombosis: a joint consensus document from the European Society of Cardiology Working Groups of Aorta and Peripheral Vascular Diseases and Pulmonary Circulation and Right Ventricular Function. European Heart Journal, 39(47), 4208-4218. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehx003

Zhao, S., Hong, X., Cao, j., Zhang, J., & Ma, P. (2020). Current evidence for pharmacological reversal using direct oral anticoagulants: What’s new? American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs, 20, 117-123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00366-0

Heart Failure

American Geriatrics Society. (2015). 2015 Updated Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 63(11), 2227-2246. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.13702

American Heart Association (2014). Get with the guideline HF patient management tool. http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@private/@wcm/@hcm/@gwtg/documents/downloadable/ucm_457483.pdf

Chow, S.L., Maisel, A.S., Anand, I., Bozkurt, B., de Boer, R.A., Felker, M., Fonarow, G.C., Greenberg, B., Januzzi, J.L., Kiernan, M.S., Liu, P.P., Wang, T.J., Yancy, C.W., Zile, M.R. (2017). Role of biomarkers for the prevention, assessment, and management of heart failure: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 135, e1054-e1091. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000490

Dumitru, I. (2018). Heart failure medication. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/163062-medication#11

Elkayam, U., Goland, S., Pieper, P., & Silversides, C. (2016). High-risk cardiac disease in pregnancy: Part II. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 68(5), 503-516. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.05.050

Farag, M., Mabote, T., Shoaib, A., Zhang, J., Nabhan, A.F., Clark, A.L., Cleland, J.G. (2015). Hydralazine and nitrates alone or combined for the management of chronic heart failure: A systematic review. International Journal of Cardiology, 196, 61-69. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.05.160

Fudim. M., Hernandez, A., & Felker, M. (2017). Role of volume redistribution in the congestion of heart failure. Journal of American Heart Association, 6(8), e006817. https://doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.006817

Mozzafarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, et al. on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. (2016). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2016 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 133, e38-e360. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000350

Murphy, N., Shanks, M., & Alderman, P. (2019). Management of heart failure using outpatient technology. Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 15(1), 12-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2018.07.004

PDR. (2020). Prescribers Digital Reference. https://www.pdr.net/

Savarese, G., & Hund, L. (2017). Global public health burden of heart failure. Cardiac Failure Review, 1(3), 7-11. doi: 10.15420/cfr.2016:25:2

Yancy C.W., Jessup, M., Bozkurt, B. (2013). 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task force on practice guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 62(16), e147-e239. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.05.019

Yancy, C.W., Jessup, M., Bozkurt, B. (2016). 2016 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update on new pharmacological therapy for heart failure: An update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000435

Yancy, C.W., Jessup, M., Bozkurt, B., et al. (2017). 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. Circulation, 137(7). https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000509

Heart Murmurs

Burns, C.E., Brady, M.A., Blosser, C., Starr, N.B., & Dunn, A.M. (2016). Cardiovascular disorders. In: Pediatric Primary Care: A Handbook for Nurse Practitioners. 6th edition. W.B. Saunders.

Christiansen, B. (2014). Endocarditis prophylaxis, Children. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2058895-overview

Domino, F., Baldor, R., Golding, J., Grimes, J., & Taylor, J. (2020). The 5-Minute Clinical Consult 2020. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Driscoll D.J. (2016). Clinical presentation and therapy of atrial septal defect. In: Rickert-Sperling S., Kelly R., Driscoll D. (Eds.) Congenital Heart Diseases: The Broken Heart. Springer Publishing.

Ferri, F.F. (2020). Aortic regurgitation. In: Ferri's 2020 Clinical Advisor. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier.

Ferri, F.F. (2020). Aortic stenosis. In: Ferri's 2020 Clinical Advisor. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier.

Ferri, F.F. (2020). Mitral valve prolapse. In: Ferri's 2020 Clinical Advisor. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier.

Healio. (2017). Heart murmurs topic review. From description to auscultation. https://www.healio.com/cardiology/learn-the-heart/cardiology-review/topic-reviews/heart-murmurs

Mangla, A. (2014). Heart Sounds. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1894036-overview#a8

Thomas, S.L. (2019). Physiology, cardiovascular murmurs. StatPearls. PMID: 30247833

Windle, M. (2018). Antibiotic prophylactic regimens for endocarditis. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1672902-overview#a30

Hyperlipidemia

American College of Cardiology. (2019). 2018 Guidelines on the management of blood cholesterol. Guidelines made simple. A selection of tables and figures. https://www.acc.org/~/media/Non-Clinical/Files-PDFs-Excel-MS-Word-etc/Guidelines/2018/Guidelines-Made-Simple-Tool-2018-Cholesterol.pdf

Burns, C.E., Brady, M.A., Blosser, C., Starr, N.B., & Dunn, A.M. (2016). Pediatric Primary Care: A Handbook for Nurse Practitioners (6th ed.). W.B. Saunders.

Cada, D. J. (2017). Drug Facts and Comparisons. Wolters Kluwer Health.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019). High Cholesterol Facts. https://www.cdc.gov/cholesterol/facts.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019). National Center for Health Statistics. Cholesterol. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/cholesterol.htm

Grundy, S.M., Stone, N. J., Bailey, A. L. et al (2019). AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 3(24):3168-3209. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.11.002

Khera, A., Won, H.H., Peloso, G.M., Lawson, K.S., Bartz, T.M., Deng, X., van Leeuwen, E.M. … et al. (2016). Diagnostic yield and clinical utility of sequencing familial hypercholesterolemia genes in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 67(22) 2578-2589. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.03.520

Lenahan, C.M. & Harrigtoon, D. (2016). PCSK9 Inhibitors for familial hypercholesterolemia. The Nurse Practitioner Journal, 12(8); 577-578. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2016.05.005

Preventive Cardiology Nurses Association. (n.d.) Heart Healthy Toolbox: Navigating the hurdles. https://mk0pcnasitegr8fvdtdc.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Heart-Healthy-Toolbox-Combined.pdf

Rubenfire, M. & Lloyd-Jones, D. (2016). Expert consensus on role of non-statin therapies for LDL-C lowering for management of ASCVD Risk. American College of Cardiology. http://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/ten-points-to-remember/2016/03/30/11/58/2016-acc-expert-consensus-decision-pathway-on-the-role-of-nonstatin.

Hypertension

Benenson, I., Waldron, F. A., Bradshaw, M. J. (2020). Treating Hypertension in Older Adults: Beyond the Guidelines. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 32(3), 193-199. https://doi:10.1097/JXX.0000000000000220

Bickley, L.S., & Szilagyi, P.G. (2016). Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking (12th ed). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Burns, C.E., Brady, M.A., Blosser, C., Starr, N.B., & Dunn, A.M. (2016). Pediatric Primary Care: A Handbook for Nurse Practitioners (6th ed.). W.B. Saunders.

James, P.A., Oparil, S., Carter, B.L., Ortiz E, et al. (2014). 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults. Report from the panel members appointed to the eighth joint national committee (JNC8). JAMA. 311(5), 507-520. https://doi:10.1001/jama.2013.284427

Shoulders, B., & Powell, L. (2019). Reaching for goal: incorporating the latest hypertension guidelines into practice. Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 15(1), 102-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2018.09.011

Whelton, P.K., Carey, R.M., Aronow, W.S., Casey, D.E. Jr, Collins, K.J., Dennison Himmelfarb, C., et al. (2017). 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYP.0000000000000065

Kawasaki Disease

Cotts, T. B. (2017). AHA Scientific Statement on Kawasaki Disease. American College of Cardiology. https://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/ten-points-to-remember/2017/04/21/11/45/diagnosis-treatment-and-long-term-management-of-kawasaki-disease

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2017). Kawasaki syndrome. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.) APEA.

McCrindle, B. W., Rowley, A. H., Newburger, J. W. (2017). Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease: a scientific statement for health professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 135 (17), e927- e999. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000484

Rowley, A. H. (2018). Kawasaki disease: AHA statement and recommendations. Contemporary Pediatrics, 35 (10), https://www.contemporarypediatrics.com/pediatrics/kawasaki-disease-aha-statement-and-recommendations

Sosa, T. K., & Steele, R. W. (2018). Kawasaki disease. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/965367-overview

Peripheral Arterial Disease

Aboyans, V., Ricco, J.B., Bartelink, M.L., et al. (2018). 2017 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial diseases, in collaboration with the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS): Document covering atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteries. European Heart Journal. 39 (9), 763-816 https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehx095

Gerhard-Herman, M., Gornik, H., Barrett, C., Barshes, N., Corriere, M., Drachman, D, et al. (2016). 2016 AHA/ACC guideline on the management of patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease: executive summary. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 69 (11), 1465-1508. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000471

Hess, C. N., Hiatt, W. R. Antithrombotic therapy for peripheral artery disease in 2018. JAMA. 2018, 319 (22), 2329-2330. https://doi:10.1001/jama.2018.5422

Rheumatic Fever

Burns, C.E., Brady, M.A., Blosser, C., Starr, N.B., & Dunn, A.M. (2016). Pediatric Primary Care: A Handbook for Nurse Practitioners (6th ed.). W.B. Saunders.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Group A Streptococcal disease. https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-hcp/acute-rheumatic-fever.html

Gewitz, M. H., Baltimore, R. S., Tani, L. Y., Sable, C. A., Shulman, S. T., Carapetis, J., Kaplan, E. L. (2015). Revision of the Jones Criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever in the era of Doppler echocardiography. Circulation, 131 (20), 1806-1818. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000205

Martin, J. (2016). The Streptococcus pyogenes carrier state. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK374206/

Wallace, M. A. R. (2019). Rheumatic fever. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/236582-overview

Watkins, D.A., Johnson, C.O., Colquhoun, S.M., et al. (2017). Global, regional, and national burden of rheumatic heart disease, 1990-2015. New England Journal of Medicine. 377, 713-722. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1603693

Varicose Veins

Cohain, J. (2018). Varicose veins in pregnancy. Midwifery Today, 128 (128), 16-17. https://midwiferytoday.com/mt-articles/varicose-veins-in-pregnancy/

Cole, G., Nabili, S. (2016). Varicose veins and spider veins. MedicineNet. http://www.medicinenet.com/varicose_veins/article.htm

Deepak Sudheendra, M. (2014). Varicose vein stripping. Medline Plus. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002952.htm

Kshitij, A., Chandradip, P., Simran, B., Gurjit, S., & Harshad, G. (2018). A study of etiology of secondary varicose veins. Archives of Clinical and Experimental Surgery, 7 (3), 104-107. doi:10.5455/aces.20171001101706

Liaudginas, T., & Kazlauskaitė, V. (2017). Varicose veins surgical treatment: Endovenous laser ablation versus open surgery. Porto Biomedical Journal, 2 (5), 242-242. doi:10.1016/j.pbj.2017.07.154

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