Endocrine Disorders

Addison's Disease

Betterle, C., Presotto, F., Furmaniak, J. (2019). Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of Addison’s disease in adults. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. https://www.doi.org/10.1007/s40618-019-01079-6

Bornstein, S. R., Allolio, B., Arlt, W., Barthel, A., Don-Wauchope, A., Hammer, G.D., Husebye, E. S., Merke, D. P., Murad, M. H., Stratakis, C. A. (2016). Diagnosis and treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 101(2): 364-389. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2015-1710

Donegan, D., & Bancos, I. (2018). Opioid-induced adrenal insufficiency. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 93(7), 937-944. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2018.04.010

Griffing, G. T. (2020). Addison disease. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/116467

Husebye, E. S., Allolio, B., Arlt, W., Badenhoop, K., Bensing, S., Betterle, C., . . . Pearce, S. H. (2014). Consensus statement on the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with primary adrenal insufficiency. Journal of Internal Medicine, 101 (2), 364-389. doi: 10.1111/joim.12162

Childhood Obesity

American Academy of Pediatrics Institute for Healthy Childhood Weight. (2016). Algorithm for the Assessment and Management of Childhood Obesity in Patients 2 Years and Older. https://ihcw.aap.org/Documents/Assessment%20%20and%20Management%20of%20Childhood%20Obesity%20Algorithm_FINAL.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Childhood obesity facts. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/childhood.html

Cuda, S. E., Censani, M. (2018). Pediatric obesity algorithm: a practical approach to obesity diagnosis and management. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 6, 431. doi: 10.3389/fped.2018.00431

Garzon Maaks, D., Starr, N. B., Brady, M. A., Gaylord, N. M., Driessnack, M. (2019). Burns’ Pediatric Primary Care. (7th ed.). Elsevier.

Grossman, D., Bibbins-Domingo, K., Curry, S., Barry, M., Davidson, K., Doubeni, C., … Tseng, C. (2017). Screening for obesity in children and adolescents U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Journal of the American Medical Association, 317 (23), 2417-2426. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.6803

Hales, C., Fryar, C., Carroll, M., Freedman, D., & Ogden, C. (2018). Trends in obesity and severe obesity in U.S. youth and adults by sex and age, 2007-2008 to 2015-2016. Journal of the American Medical Association, 319(16), 1723-1725. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.3060

Richardson, B. (2018). Pediatric Primary Care: Practice Guidelines for Nurses (4th ed.). Bartlett & Jones Learning.

Styne, D. M., Arslanian, S. A., Connor, E. L., et al. (2017). Pediatric obesity—assessment, treatment, and prevention: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 102(3):709-757. doi: 10.1210/jc.2016-2573

Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder

Arora, P. (2019). Chronic kidney disease. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/238798-overview

Gilbert, S. J., Weiner, D. E., Bomback, A. S., Perazella, M. A., & Tonelli, M. (Eds.). (2017). National Kidney Foundation’s Primer on Kidney Diseases. (7th ed.). Elsevier.

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Chronic kidney disease. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD-MBD Update Work Group. (2017). Clinical practice guideline update for the diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorder. Kidney International, 76 (Suppl 113), S1-S 130. doi: 10.1016/j.kisu.2017.04.00

Cushing Syndrome

Buttaro, T. M, Trybulski, J., Polgar-Bailey, P., & Sandberg-Cook, J. (2017). Primary Care: A Collaborative Practice (5th ed.). Elsevier.

Domino, F. J. (2020). The 5-Minute Clinical Consult 2020. Wolters Kluwer.

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Cushing’s syndrome. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Nieman, L. K. (2018). Recent updates on the diagnosis and management of Cushing's syndrome. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 33 (2), 139-146. doi: 10.3803/EnM.2018.33.2.139

Nieman, L. K., Biller, M. K., Findling, J. W., Murad, H., Newell-Price, J., Savage, M. O., Tabarin, A. (2015). Treatment of Cushing's syndrome: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 100 (8), 2807-2831. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2015-1818

Rakel, R. E. & Rakel, D. P. (2016). Textbook of Family Medicine (9th ed.). Elsevier Saunders.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (2020). AACE Diabetes Resource Center. Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis. http://outpatient.aace.com/type1-diabetes/t1dm-diagnosis

American Association of Diabetes Educators. (2019). The Art and Science of Diabetes Self-Management Education Desk Reference. (4th Ed.). American Association of Diabetes Educators.

American Diabetes Association. (2020). Children and Adolescents: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2020. Diabetes Care, 43 (Supplement 1), S163-S182. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-S013

American Diabetes Association. (2020). Management of Diabetes in Pregnancy: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2020. Diabetes Care, 43 (Supplement 1), S183-S192. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-S014

American Diabetes Association. (2020). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2020—Abridged for primary care providers. Clinical Diabetes, 38 (1), 10-38. https://doi.org/10.2337/cd20-as01

American Diabetes Association. (2020). Statistics about diabetes. https://www.diabetes.org/resources/statistics/statistics-about-diabetes

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). National Diabetes Statistics Report. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/data/statistics/statistics-report.html

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (2020). AACE diabetes resource center. Type 2 diabetes diagnosis. https://www.aace.com/disease-state-resources/diabetes

American Association of Diabetes Educators. (2020). The Art and Science of Diabetes Self-Management Education Desk Reference. (5th ed.). American Association of Diabetes Educators.

American Diabetes Association. (2020). Children and Adolescents: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2020. Diabetes Care, 43 (Supplement 1), S163-S182. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-S013

American Diabetes Association. (2020). Management of Diabetes in Pregnancy: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2020. Diabetes Care, 43 (Supplement 1), S183-S192. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-S014

American Diabetes Association. (2020). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2020—Abridged for primary care providers. Clinical Diabetes, 38 (1), 10-38. https://doi.org/10.2337/cd20-as01

American Diabetes Association. (2020). Statistics about diabetes. https://www.diabetes.org/resources/statistics/statistics-about-diabetes

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). National diabetes statistics report. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/data/statistics/statistics-report.html

Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Precose. Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2008/020482s023lbl.pdf

Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Adlyxin. Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/208471Orig1s000lbl.pdf

Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Bydureon. Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2018/022200s026lbl.pdf

Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Information on DPP-4 inhibitors.https://www.fda.gov/drugs/information-drug-class/information-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-dpp-4-inhibitors

Food and Drug Administration. (2020). FDA approves new treatment for pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-new-treatment-pediatric-patients-type-2-diabetes

Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Liraglutide. Highlights of prescribing information.https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/022341s027lbl.pdf

Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Glumetza. Highlights of prescribing information.https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/021748s010lbl.pdf

Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Nesina. Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/022271s000lbl.pdf

Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Ozempic. Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/209637lbl.pdf

Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Actos. Highlights of prescribing information.https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/021073s043s044lbl.pdf

Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Repaglinide. Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/077571s000lbl.pdf

Food and Drug Administration. (2020). SGLT2 inhibitors.https://www.fda.gov/drugs/postmarket-drug-safety-information-patients-and-providers/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitors

Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Steglatro. Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/209803s000lbl.pdf

Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Trajenta. Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/201280lbl.pdf

Garber, A.J., Abrahamson, M.J., Barzilay, J.I., … Samson, S. (2020). American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology on the Comprehensive Type 2 Diabetes Management Algorithm. 2020 Executive Summary. https://www.aace.com/pdfs/diabetes/algorithm-exec-summary.pdf

Grundy, S. M., & Stone , N. J. (2019). 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology multisociety guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: primary prevention. JAMA Cardiology, 4 (5), 488-489. doi: doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2019.0777

Noya, C., & McGrath, M. (2017). Diabetes mellitus. In Clinical Guidelines for Advanced Practice Nursing: An Interdisciplinary Approach. (3rd ed., pp. 529-538). Jones and Bartlett.

Sisson, E. M., Cook, J., Conner, K. M., & Barnes, H. N. (2018). Pharmacological management of hyperglycemia during pregnancy. ACDES in Practice. https://doi.org/10.1177/2325160318789133

TRC Healthcare. (2019). Diabetes Medications and Cardiovascular Impact. Pharmacist’s Letter/Prescriber’s Letter. https://prescriber.therapeuticresearch.com

TRC Healthcare. (2019). Drugs for type 2 diabetes. Pharmacist’s Letter/Prescriber’s Letter. https://prescriber.therapeuticresearch.com

TRC Healthcare. (2019). Improving diabetes outcomes. Pharmacist’s Letter/Prescriber’s Letter. https://prescriber.therapeuticresearch.com

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

Farhat, N.M. & Yezback, K. L. (2016). Treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 12 (10); 660-666. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2016.07.030

Flynn, K. (2016). Tricyclic antidepressants in neuropathic pain: The good, the bad, the potentially ugly. Pharmacy Times.https://www.pharmacytimes.com/contributor/kelsie-flynn-pharmd/2016/01/tricyclic-antidepressants-in-neuropathic-pain-the-good-the-bad-and-the-potentially-ugly

Hershey, D. S. (2017). Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: Evaluation and management. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners. 13(3);199-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2016.08.034

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Diabetic peripheral neuropathy. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd Ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Patrick, S. (2018). Tiny Tips: “TREADMILLS” peripheral neuropathy mnemonic. Canadiem. https://canadiem.org/treadmills-peripheral-neuropathy-mnemonic/

Ponirakis, G., Khan, A., Almuhannadi, H., Gad, H., Malik, R. (2018). Diagnosing diabetic neuropathy: Something old, something new. Diabetes and Metabolism Journal, 42 (4), 255-269. doi: 10.4093/dmj.2018.0056

Pop-Busui, R., Boulton, A. J., Feldman, E. L., Bril, V., Freeman, R., Malik, R. A., … Zeigler, D. (2017). Diabetic neuropathy: A position statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 40, 136-154. Doi:10.2337/dc16-2042 https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/diacare/40/1/136.full.pdf

Ruble, M. J., Visovsky, C., Lewis, A. & Tofthagen, C. (2019). Medical and supplement use and peripheral neuropathies. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 15, e161-163. doi: 10.1016/jnurpra.2019.02.022

Watson, J. C. & Dyck, P. J. (2015). Peripheral neuropathy: A practical approach to diagnosis and symptom management. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 90 (7), 940-951. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.05.004

Gynecomastia

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Gynecomastia. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Kanakis, G. A., Nordkap, L., Bang, A. K., Calogero, A. E., Bártfai, G., Corona, G., … Jørgensen, N. (2019). EAA clinical practice guidelines—gynecomastia evaluation and management. Andrology, 7 (6), 778-793. doi:10.1111/andr.12636

Soliman, A. T., De Sanctis, V., & Yassin, M. (2017). Management of adolescent gynecomastia: an update. Acta bio-medica, 88 (2), 204-213. doi:10.23750/abm.v88i2.6665

Hyperthyroidism

Bahn, R. S. (2011). Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: Management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Endocrine Practice, 17 (3), 456-520. https://doi.org/10.4158/EP.17.3.456

Domino, F. J. (2020). The 5-Minute Clinical Consult Standard 2020. Wolters Kluwer.

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Hyperthyroidism. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Lee, S. L. (2020). Hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/121865

Hypoglycemia Secondary to Diabetes

American Diabetes Association. (2020). Glycemic targets. Standards of medical care in diabetes 2020. Diabetes Care, 43 (Supplement 1), S66-S76. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-S006

Domino, F. J. (Ed). (2020). The 5-Minute Clinical Consult Standard 2020. Wolters Kluwer.

Edridge, C. L., Dunkley, A. J., Bodicoat, D. H., Rose, T. C., Gray, L. J., Davies, M. J., Khunti, K. (2015). Prevalence and incidence of hypoglycemia in 532,542 people with type 2 diabetes on oral therapies and insulin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population based studies. PLoS ONE 10 (6) e0126427. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126427

Inzucchi, S. E. (2015). Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-centered approach. Update to a Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 38, 140-149. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc14-2441.

Jones, G. C., Khan, J. Sainsbury, C. A. R. (2017). Is all hypoglycemia treated as equal? An observational study of how the type of diabetes and treatment prescribed prior to admission influences quality of treatment of inpatient hypoglycemia. Acta Diabetologica, 54 (3), 247-250. doi: 10.1007/s00592-016-0940-3

Kittah, N. E., Vella, A. (2017). Management of endocrine disease: pathogenesis and management of hypoglycemia. European Journal of Endocrinology, 177 (1), R37-R47. doi:10.1530/EJE-16-1062

Lash, R.W., Lucas, D.O., Illes, J. (2018). Preventing hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 103 (4), 1265-1268. doi.org/10.1210/jc.2017-02804

Zhou, Y., Huang, L., Zheng, W., An, J., Zhan, Z., Wang, L., Z. Chen, Liu, L. (2018). Recurrent nonsevere hypoglycemia exacerbates imbalance of mitochondrial homeostasis leading to synapse injury and cognitive deficit in diabetes. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 315: E973-E986. doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00133.2018

Hypogonadism

Bhasin, S., Brito, J. P., Cunningham, G. R., Hayes, F. J., Hodis, H. N., Matsumoto, A. M., ... & Yialamas, M. A. (2018). Testosterone therapy in men with hypogonadism: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 103 (5), 1715-1744. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-00229.

Dean, J. D., McMahon, C. G., Guay, A. T., Morgentaler, A., Althof, S. E., Becher, E. F., & Hellstrom, W. J. (2015). The International Society for Sexual Medicine's process of care for the assessment and management of testosterone deficiency in adult men. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 12 (8), 1660-1686. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12952.

Food and Drug Administration (2015). Testosterone information. FDA. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/postmarket-drug-safety-information-patients-and-providers/testosterone-information

Gravholt, C. H., Andersen, N. H., Conway, G. S., Dekkers, O. M., Geffner, M. E., Klein, K. O., & Sandberg, D. E. (2017). Clinical practice guidelines for the care of girls and women with Turner syndrome: proceedings from the 2016 Cincinnati International Turner Syndrome Meeting. European Journal of Endocrinology, 177 (3), G1-G70. doi: 10.1530/EJE-17-0430.

Mulhall, J. P., Trost, L. W., Brannigan, R. E., Kurtz, E. G., Redmon, J. B., Chiles, K. A., ... & Platz, E. A. (2018). Evaluation and management of testosterone deficiency: AUA guideline. The Journal of Urology, 200 (2), 423-432. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2018.03.115.

Thirumalai, A., Berkseth, K. E., Amorya, J. K. (2017). Treatment of hypogonadism: current and future therapies. F1000Res. doi:10.12688/f1000research.10102.1

Hypothyroidism

Domino, F. J. (2020). The 5-Minute Clinical Consult 2020. Wolters Kluwer.

Garber, J. R. P. (2012). Clinical practice guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults: cosponsered by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid, 22 (12), 1200-1235.

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Hypothyroidism. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Jinklaas, J., Bianco, A. C., Bauer A. J., Burman, K. D., Cappola, A. R., Celi, F. S., Cooper, D. S., Kim, B. W., Rosenthal, M. S., Sawka, A. M. (2014). Guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism: prepared by the American Thyroid Association Task Force on Thyroid Hormone Replacement. Thyroid. 24 (12): 1670–1751. doi: 10.1089/thy.2014.0028

Obesity

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Endocrinology. (2016). AACE/ACE algorithm for the medical care of patients with obesity. https://www.aace.com/disease-state-resources/nutrition-and-obesity/treatment-algorithms/obesity-algorithm#/start

Apovian, C., Aronne, L., Bessesen, D., McDonnell, D., Murad, D., Pagotto, U., Ryan, D., Still C. (2015). Pharmacological management of obesity: an Endocrine Society Clinical practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 100 (2), 342-62. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-3415

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adult Obesity Facts. (2020). http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html

Golden, A. (2017). Current pharmacotherapies for obesity: A practical perspective. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 29 (S1): S43-S52. doi: 10.1002/2327-6924.12519

Obesity Action Coalition. (n.d.) Bariatric Surgery. http://www.obesityaction.org/obesity-treatments/bariatric-surgery

Obesity Medicine Association. (2020). 2020 Obesity Algorithm. https://obesitymedicine.org/obesity-algorithm/

Ritten, A. & LaManna, J. (2017). Unmet needs in obesity management: From guidelines to clinic. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 29, S30-42. doi: 10.1002/2327-6924.12507

Roggem, M., & Gautam. B. (2017). Biology of obesity and weight regain: Implications for clinical practice. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 29(S1): S15-S29.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Medical devices for weight loss and weight management: what to know. https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/medical-devices-weight-loss-and-weight-management-what-know

Yeun, M., Earle, R., Kadambi, N., Brancale, J., Lui, D., Kahan, S., & Kaplan, L. (2016). A systematic review and evaluation of current evidence reveals 236 obesity-associated disorders (ObAD). Poster session, Obesity Week 2016, New Orleans, LA.

Precocious Puberty

Carel, J.C., Eugster, E. A., Rogol, A., et al. (2009). Consensus statement on the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children. Pediatrics, 123 (4), e752-62. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-1783.

Chen, M. & Eugster, E.A. (2015). Central precocious puberty: update on diagnosis and treatment. Paediatric Drugs, 17(4), 273-281. Doi: 10.1007/s40272-015-0130-8

Eugster, E.A. (2019). Treatment of central precocious puberty. Journal of the Endocrine Society, 3(5), 965-971. doi: 10.1210/js.2019-00036

Fisher, M.M., Lemay, D., Eugster, E.A. (2014). Resumption of puberty in girls and boys following removal of the histrelin implant. Journal of Pediatrics, 164(4), 912-916. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.12.009

Giabicani, E., Lemaire, P., Brauner, R. (2015). Models for predicting the adult height and age at first menstruation of girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty. PLOS One. doi: 10.1371/journal/pone/o120588

Kaplowitz, P.& Bloch, C. (2016). Evaluation and referral of children with signs of early puberty. Pediatrics, 137(1): e20153732. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-3732

Kaplowitz, P. & Hoffman, R.P. (2020). Precocious Puberty. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/924002-overview

Kletter, G.B., Klein, K.O., Wong, Y.Y. (2015). A pediatrician’s guide to central precocious puberty. Clinical Pediatrics. 54(5):414-424. Doi: 10.1177/0009922814541807

Lee, P.A., Klein, K., Mauras, N., Neely, E. K., et al. (2015). Efficacy and safety of leuprolide acetate 3-month depot 11.25 milligrams or 30 milligrams for the treatment of central precocious puberty. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 97 (5). Doi: doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-2704

Moal, J. L., Rigou, A., Le Tertre, A., De Crouy-Channel, P., Leger, J., & Carel, J. C. (2018). Marked geographic patterns in the incidence of idiopathic central precocious puberty: a nationwide study in France. European Journal of Endocrinology, 178, 1. Doi:10.1530/EJE-17-0379

Thyroid Nodule

Durante, C., Costante, G., Lucisano, G., et al. (2015). The natural history of benign thyroid nodules. Journal of the American Medical Association, 313 (9); 926-35. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.0956

Gharib, H., Papini, E., Garber, J. R., et al. (2016). American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Endocrinology, and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi Medical Guidelines for Clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules 2016 update. Endocrine Practice, 22 (S1), 1-60. doi: 10.4158/EP161208.GL

Haugen, B. R., Alexander, E. K., Bible, K. C., et al. (2015). American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Thyroid. 26 (1): 1-133. doi: 10.1089/thy.2015.0020

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Thyroid nodules. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.

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