Endocrine Disorders

Addison's Disease


Betterle, C., Presotto, F., Furmaniak, J. (2019). Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of Addison’s disease in adults. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. https://www.doi.org/10.1007/s40618-019-01079-6


Bornstein, S. R., Allolio, B., Arlt, W., Barthel, A., Don-Wauchope, A., Hammer, G.D., Husebye, E. S., Merke, D. P., Murad, M. H., Stratakis, C. A. (2016). Diagnosis and treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 101(2): 364-389. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2015-1710


Donegan, D., & Bancos, I. (2018). Opioid-induced adrenal insufficiency. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 93(7), 937-944. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2018.04.010


Griffing, G. T. (2020). Addison disease. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/116467


Husebye, E. S., Allolio, B., Arlt, W., Badenhoop, K., Bensing, S., Betterle, C., . . . Pearce, S. H. (2014). Consensus statement on the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with primary adrenal insufficiency. Journal of Internal Medicine, 101 (2), 364-389. doi: 10.1111/joim.12162


Childhood Obesity


American Academy of Pediatrics Institute for Healthy Childhood Weight. (2016). Algorithm for the Assessment and Management of Childhood Obesity in Patients 2 Years and Older. https://ihcw.aap.org/Documents/Assessment%20%20and%20Management%20of%20Childhood%20Obesity%20Algorithm_FINAL.pdf


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Childhood obesity facts. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/childhood.html


Cuda, S. E., Censani, M. (2018). Pediatric obesity algorithm: a practical approach to obesity diagnosis and management. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 6, 431. doi: 10.3389/fped.2018.00431


Garzon Maaks, D., Starr, N. B., Brady, M. A., Gaylord, N. M., Driessnack, M. (2019). Burns’ Pediatric Primary Care. (7th ed.). Elsevier.


Grossman, D., Bibbins-Domingo, K., Curry, S., Barry, M., Davidson, K., Doubeni, C., … Tseng, C. (2017). Screening for obesity in children and adolescents U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Journal of the American Medical Association, 317 (23), 2417-2426. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.6803


Hales, C., Fryar, C., Carroll, M., Freedman, D., & Ogden, C. (2018). Trends in obesity and severe obesity in U.S. youth and adults by sex and age, 2007-2008 to 2015-2016. Journal of the American Medical Association, 319(16), 1723-1725. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.3060


Richardson, B. (2018). Pediatric Primary Care: Practice Guidelines for Nurses (4th ed.). Bartlett & Jones Learning.


Styne, D. M., Arslanian, S. A., Connor, E. L., et al. (2017). Pediatric obesity—assessment, treatment, and prevention: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 102(3):709-757. doi: 10.1210/jc.2016-2573


Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder


Arora, P. (2019). Chronic kidney disease. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/238798-overview


Gilbert, S. J., Weiner, D. E., Bomback, A. S., Perazella, M. A., & Tonelli, M. (Eds.). (2017). National Kidney Foundation’s Primer on Kidney Diseases. (7th ed.). Elsevier.


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Chronic kidney disease. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD-MBD Update Work Group. (2017). Clinical practice guideline update for the diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorder. Kidney International, 76 (Suppl 113), S1-S 130. doi: 10.1016/j.kisu.2017.04.00


Cushing Syndrome


Buttaro, T. M, Trybulski, J., Polgar-Bailey, P., & Sandberg-Cook, J. (2017). Primary Care: A Collaborative Practice (5th ed.). Elsevier.


Domino, F. J. (2020). The 5-Minute Clinical Consult 2020. Wolters Kluwer.


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Cushing’s syndrome. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Nieman, L. K. (2018). Recent updates on the diagnosis and management of Cushing's syndrome. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 33 (2), 139-146. doi: 10.3803/EnM.2018.33.2.139


Nieman, L. K., Biller, M. K., Findling, J. W., Murad, H., Newell-Price, J., Savage, M. O., Tabarin, A. (2015). Treatment of Cushing's syndrome: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 100 (8), 2807-2831. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2015-1818


Rakel, R. E. & Rakel, D. P. (2016). Textbook of Family Medicine (9th ed.). Elsevier Saunders.


Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1


American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (2020). AACE Diabetes Resource Center. Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis. http://outpatient.aace.com/type1-diabetes/t1dm-diagnosis


American Association of Diabetes Educators. (2019). The Art and Science of Diabetes Self-Management Education Desk Reference. (4th Ed.). American Association of Diabetes Educators.


American Diabetes Association. (2020). Children and Adolescents: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2020. Diabetes Care, 43 (Supplement 1), S163-S182. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-S013


American Diabetes Association. (2020). Management of Diabetes in Pregnancy: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2020. Diabetes Care, 43 (Supplement 1), S183-S192. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-S014


American Diabetes Association. (2020). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2020—Abridged for primary care providers. Clinical Diabetes, 38 (1), 10-38. https://doi.org/10.2337/cd20-as01


American Diabetes Association. (2020). Statistics about diabetes. https://www.diabetes.org/resources/statistics/statistics-about-diabetes


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). National Diabetes Statistics Report. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/data/statistics/statistics-report.html


Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2


American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (2020). AACE diabetes resource center. Type 2 diabetes diagnosis. https://www.aace.com/disease-state-resources/diabetes


American Association of Diabetes Educators. (2020). The Art and Science of Diabetes Self-Management Education Desk Reference. (5th ed.). American Association of Diabetes Educators.


American Diabetes Association. (2020). Children and Adolescents: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2020. Diabetes Care, 43 (Supplement 1), S163-S182. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-S013


American Diabetes Association. (2020). Management of Diabetes in Pregnancy: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2020. Diabetes Care, 43 (Supplement 1), S183-S192. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-S014


American Diabetes Association. (2020). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2020—Abridged for primary care providers. Clinical Diabetes, 38 (1), 10-38. https://doi.org/10.2337/cd20-as01


American Diabetes Association. (2020). Statistics about diabetes. https://www.diabetes.org/resources/statistics/statistics-about-diabetes


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). National diabetes statistics report. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/data/statistics/statistics-report.html


Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Precose. Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2008/020482s023lbl.pdf


Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Adlyxin. Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/208471Orig1s000lbl.pdf


Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Bydureon. Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2018/022200s026lbl.pdf


Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Information on DPP-4 inhibitors.https://www.fda.gov/drugs/information-drug-class/information-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-dpp-4-inhibitors


Food and Drug Administration. (2020). FDA approves new treatment for pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-new-treatment-pediatric-patients-type-2-diabetes


Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Liraglutide. Highlights of prescribing information.https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/022341s027lbl.pdf


Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Glumetza. Highlights of prescribing information.https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/021748s010lbl.pdf


Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Nesina. Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/022271s000lbl.pdf


Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Ozempic. Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/209637lbl.pdf


Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Actos. Highlights of prescribing information.https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/021073s043s044lbl.pdf


Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Repaglinide. Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/077571s000lbl.pdf


Food and Drug Administration. (2020). SGLT2 inhibitors.https://www.fda.gov/drugs/postmarket-drug-safety-information-patients-and-providers/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitors


Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Steglatro. Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/209803s000lbl.pdf


Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Trajenta. Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/201280lbl.pdf


Garber, A.J., Abrahamson, M.J., Barzilay, J.I., … Samson, S. (2020). American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology on the Comprehensive Type 2 Diabetes Management Algorithm. 2020 Executive Summary. https://www.aace.com/pdfs/diabetes/algorithm-exec-summary.pdf


Grundy, S. M., & Stone , N. J. (2019). 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology multisociety guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: primary prevention. JAMA Cardiology, 4 (5), 488-489. doi: doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2019.0777


Noya, C., & McGrath, M. (2017). Diabetes mellitus. In Clinical Guidelines for Advanced Practice Nursing: An Interdisciplinary Approach. (3rd ed., pp. 529-538). Jones and Bartlett.


Sisson, E. M., Cook, J., Conner, K. M., & Barnes, H. N. (2018). Pharmacological management of hyperglycemia during pregnancy. ACDES in Practice. https://doi.org/10.1177/2325160318789133


TRC Healthcare. (2019). Diabetes Medications and Cardiovascular Impact. Pharmacist’s Letter/Prescriber’s Letter. https://prescriber.therapeuticresearch.com


TRC Healthcare. (2019). Drugs for type 2 diabetes. Pharmacist’s Letter/Prescriber’s Letter. https://prescriber.therapeuticresearch.com


TRC Healthcare. (2019). Improving diabetes outcomes. Pharmacist’s Letter/Prescriber’s Letter. https://prescriber.therapeuticresearch.com


Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy


Farhat, N.M. & Yezback, K. L. (2016). Treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 12 (10); 660-666. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2016.07.030


Flynn, K. (2016). Tricyclic antidepressants in neuropathic pain: The good, the bad, the potentially ugly. Pharmacy Times.https://www.pharmacytimes.com/contributor/kelsie-flynn-pharmd/2016/01/tricyclic-antidepressants-in-neuropathic-pain-the-good-the-bad-and-the-potentially-ugly


Hershey, D. S. (2017). Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: Evaluation and management. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners. 13(3);199-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2016.08.034


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Diabetic peripheral neuropathy. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd Ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Patrick, S. (2018). Tiny Tips: “TREADMILLS” peripheral neuropathy mnemonic. Canadiem. https://canadiem.org/treadmills-peripheral-neuropathy-mnemonic/


Ponirakis, G., Khan, A., Almuhannadi, H., Gad, H., Malik, R. (2018). Diagnosing diabetic neuropathy: Something old, something new. Diabetes and Metabolism Journal, 42 (4), 255-269. doi: 10.4093/dmj.2018.0056


Pop-Busui, R., Boulton, A. J., Feldman, E. L., Bril, V., Freeman, R., Malik, R. A., … Zeigler, D. (2017). Diabetic neuropathy: A position statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 40, 136-154. Doi:10.2337/dc16-2042 https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/diacare/40/1/136.full.pdf


Ruble, M. J., Visovsky, C., Lewis, A. & Tofthagen, C. (2019). Medical and supplement use and peripheral neuropathies. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 15, e161-163. doi: 10.1016/jnurpra.2019.02.022


Watson, J. C. & Dyck, P. J. (2015). Peripheral neuropathy: A practical approach to diagnosis and symptom management. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 90 (7), 940-951. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.05.004


Gynecomastia


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Gynecomastia. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Kanakis, G. A., Nordkap, L., Bang, A. K., Calogero, A. E., Bártfai, G., Corona, G., … Jørgensen, N. (2019). EAA clinical practice guidelines—gynecomastia evaluation and management. Andrology, 7 (6), 778-793. doi:10.1111/andr.12636


Soliman, A. T., De Sanctis, V., & Yassin, M. (2017). Management of adolescent gynecomastia: an update. Acta bio-medica, 88 (2), 204-213. doi:10.23750/abm.v88i2.6665


Hyperthyroidism


Bahn, R. S. (2011). Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: Management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Endocrine Practice, 17 (3), 456-520. https://doi.org/10.4158/EP.17.3.456


Domino, F. J. (2020). The 5-Minute Clinical Consult Standard 2020. Wolters Kluwer.


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Hyperthyroidism. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Lee, S. L. (2020). Hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/121865


Hypoglycemia Secondary to Diabetes


American Diabetes Association. (2020). Glycemic targets. Standards of medical care in diabetes 2020. Diabetes Care, 43 (Supplement 1), S66-S76. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-S006


Domino, F. J. (Ed). (2020). The 5-Minute Clinical Consult Standard 2020. Wolters Kluwer.


Edridge, C. L., Dunkley, A. J., Bodicoat, D. H., Rose, T. C., Gray, L. J., Davies, M. J., Khunti, K. (2015). Prevalence and incidence of hypoglycemia in 532,542 people with type 2 diabetes on oral therapies and insulin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population based studies. PLoS ONE 10 (6) e0126427. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126427


Inzucchi, S. E. (2015). Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-centered approach. Update to a Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 38, 140-149. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc14-2441.


Jones, G. C., Khan, J. Sainsbury, C. A. R. (2017). Is all hypoglycemia treated as equal? An observational study of how the type of diabetes and treatment prescribed prior to admission influences quality of treatment of inpatient hypoglycemia. Acta Diabetologica, 54 (3), 247-250. doi: 10.1007/s00592-016-0940-3


Kittah, N. E., Vella, A. (2017). Management of endocrine disease: pathogenesis and management of hypoglycemia. European Journal of Endocrinology, 177 (1), R37-R47. doi:10.1530/EJE-16-1062


Lash, R.W., Lucas, D.O., Illes, J. (2018). Preventing hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 103 (4), 1265-1268. doi.org/10.1210/jc.2017-02804


Zhou, Y., Huang, L., Zheng, W., An, J., Zhan, Z., Wang, L., Z. Chen, Liu, L. (2018). Recurrent nonsevere hypoglycemia exacerbates imbalance of mitochondrial homeostasis leading to synapse injury and cognitive deficit in diabetes. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 315: E973-E986. doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00133.2018


Hypogonadism


Bhasin, S., Brito, J. P., Cunningham, G. R., Hayes, F. J., Hodis, H. N., Matsumoto, A. M., ... & Yialamas, M. A. (2018). Testosterone therapy in men with hypogonadism: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 103 (5), 1715-1744. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-00229.


Dean, J. D., McMahon, C. G., Guay, A. T., Morgentaler, A., Althof, S. E., Becher, E. F., & Hellstrom, W. J. (2015). The International Society for Sexual Medicine's process of care for the assessment and management of testosterone deficiency in adult men. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 12 (8), 1660-1686. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12952.


Food and Drug Administration (2015). Testosterone information. FDA. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/postmarket-drug-safety-information-patients-and-providers/testosterone-information


Gravholt, C. H., Andersen, N. H., Conway, G. S., Dekkers, O. M., Geffner, M. E., Klein, K. O., & Sandberg, D. E. (2017). Clinical practice guidelines for the care of girls and women with Turner syndrome: proceedings from the 2016 Cincinnati International Turner Syndrome Meeting. European Journal of Endocrinology, 177 (3), G1-G70. doi: 10.1530/EJE-17-0430.


Mulhall, J. P., Trost, L. W., Brannigan, R. E., Kurtz, E. G., Redmon, J. B., Chiles, K. A., ... & Platz, E. A. (2018). Evaluation and management of testosterone deficiency: AUA guideline. The Journal of Urology, 200 (2), 423-432. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2018.03.115.


Thirumalai, A., Berkseth, K. E., Amorya, J. K. (2017). Treatment of hypogonadism: current and future therapies. F1000Res. doi:10.12688/f1000research.10102.1

Hypothyroidism


Domino, F. J. (2020). The 5-Minute Clinical Consult 2020. Wolters Kluwer.


Garber, J. R. P. (2012). Clinical practice guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults: cosponsered by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid, 22 (12), 1200-1235.


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Hypothyroidism. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Jinklaas, J., Bianco, A. C., Bauer A. J., Burman, K. D., Cappola, A. R., Celi, F. S., Cooper, D. S., Kim, B. W., Rosenthal, M. S., Sawka, A. M. (2014). Guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism: prepared by the American Thyroid Association Task Force on Thyroid Hormone Replacement. Thyroid. 24 (12): 1670–1751. doi: 10.1089/thy.2014.0028


Obesity


American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Endocrinology. (2016). AACE/ACE algorithm for the medical care of patients with obesity. https://www.aace.com/disease-state-resources/nutrition-and-obesity/treatment-algorithms/obesity-algorithm#/start


Apovian, C., Aronne, L., Bessesen, D., McDonnell, D., Murad, D., Pagotto, U., Ryan, D., Still C. (2015). Pharmacological management of obesity: an Endocrine Society Clinical practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 100 (2), 342-62. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-3415


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adult Obesity Facts. (2020). http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html


Golden, A. (2017). Current pharmacotherapies for obesity: A practical perspective. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 29 (S1): S43-S52. doi: 10.1002/2327-6924.12519


Obesity Action Coalition. (n.d.) Bariatric Surgery. http://www.obesityaction.org/obesity-treatments/bariatric-surgery


Obesity Medicine Association. (2020). 2020 Obesity Algorithm. https://obesitymedicine.org/obesity-algorithm/


Ritten, A. & LaManna, J. (2017). Unmet needs in obesity management: From guidelines to clinic. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 29, S30-42. doi: 10.1002/2327-6924.12507


Roggem, M., & Gautam. B. (2017). Biology of obesity and weight regain: Implications for clinical practice. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 29(S1): S15-S29.


U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Medical devices for weight loss and weight management: what to know. https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/medical-devices-weight-loss-and-weight-management-what-know


Yeun, M., Earle, R., Kadambi, N., Brancale, J., Lui, D., Kahan, S., & Kaplan, L. (2016). A systematic review and evaluation of current evidence reveals 236 obesity-associated disorders (ObAD). Poster session, Obesity Week 2016, New Orleans, LA.


Precocious Puberty


Carel, J.C., Eugster, E. A., Rogol, A., et al. (2009). Consensus statement on the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children. Pediatrics, 123 (4), e752-62. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-1783.


Chen, M. & Eugster, E.A. (2015). Central precocious puberty: update on diagnosis and treatment. Paediatric Drugs, 17(4), 273-281. Doi: 10.1007/s40272-015-0130-8


Eugster, E.A. (2019). Treatment of central precocious puberty. Journal of the Endocrine Society, 3(5), 965-971. doi: 10.1210/js.2019-00036


Fisher, M.M., Lemay, D., Eugster, E.A. (2014). Resumption of puberty in girls and boys following removal of the histrelin implant. Journal of Pediatrics, 164(4), 912-916. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.12.009


Giabicani, E., Lemaire, P., Brauner, R. (2015). Models for predicting the adult height and age at first menstruation of girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty. PLOS One. doi: 10.1371/journal/pone/o120588


Kaplowitz, P.& Bloch, C. (2016). Evaluation and referral of children with signs of early puberty. Pediatrics, 137(1): e20153732. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-3732


Kaplowitz, P. & Hoffman, R.P. (2020). Precocious Puberty. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/924002-overview


Kletter, G.B., Klein, K.O., Wong, Y.Y. (2015). A pediatrician’s guide to central precocious puberty. Clinical Pediatrics. 54(5):414-424. Doi: 10.1177/0009922814541807


Lee, P.A., Klein, K., Mauras, N., Neely, E. K., et al. (2015). Efficacy and safety of leuprolide acetate 3-month depot 11.25 milligrams or 30 milligrams for the treatment of central precocious puberty. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 97 (5). Doi: doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-2704


Moal, J. L., Rigou, A., Le Tertre, A., De Crouy-Channel, P., Leger, J., & Carel, J. C. (2018). Marked geographic patterns in the incidence of idiopathic central precocious puberty: a nationwide study in France. European Journal of Endocrinology, 178, 1. Doi:10.1530/EJE-17-0379


Thyroid Nodule


Durante, C., Costante, G., Lucisano, G., et al. (2015). The natural history of benign thyroid nodules. Journal of the American Medical Association, 313 (9); 926-35. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.0956


Gharib, H., Papini, E., Garber, J. R., et al. (2016). American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Endocrinology, and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi Medical Guidelines for Clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules 2016 update. Endocrine Practice, 22 (S1), 1-60. doi: 10.4158/EP161208.GL


Haugen, B. R., Alexander, E. K., Bible, K. C., et al. (2015). American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Thyroid. 26 (1): 1-133. doi: 10.1089/thy.2015.0020


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Thyroid nodules. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.



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