Gastrointestinal Disorders

Acute Gastroenteritis

Chaney, A. (2016). Diarrhea. In Fast Facts About GI and Liver Diseases for Nurses: What APRNs Need to Know in a Nutshell. Springer Publishing.

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Acute gastroenteritis. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Prescilla, R.P. (2018). Pediatric gastroenteritis treatment and management. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/964131-treatment

Riddle, M. S., DuPont, H. L., Connor, B. A. (2016). ACG clinical guideline: diagnosis, treatment and prevention of acute diarrheal infections in adults. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 41 (5), 602-622. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2016.126

Shane, A.L., Mody, R. K., Crump, J.A., et al. (2017). 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of infectious diarrhea. Clincal Infectious Diseases, 65 (12); e45-e80. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix669

Zofran. (n.d.). Drugs.com. https://www.drugs.com/pro/zofran.html

Appendicitis

Craig, S. (2018). Appendicitis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/773895

Gorter, R. R., Eker, H., Gorter-Stam, M., Gabor, S. A., … Deelder, J. D. (2016). Diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis. EAES consensus development conference 2015. Surgical Endoscopy. 30 (11), 4668-4690. doi: 10.1007/s00464-016-5245-7

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Appendicitis. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Kirkil, C., Yigit, M. V., & Aygen, E. (2014). Long-term results of nonoperative treatment for uncomplicated acute appendicitis. Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology, 25 (4), 393-397. doi: 10.5152/tjg.2014.7192

Mohammed, A., Shanbhag, V., Ashfaque, K. (2014). A comparative study of RIPASA score and ALVARADO score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Journal of Clinical Diagnostic Research, 8 (11), NC03-05. doi: 10.7860/jcdr/2014/9055.5170

Ramone, R., et al. (2016). Diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis. EAES consensus development conference 2015. Surgical Endoscopy 30 (11): 4668-4690. doi: 10.1007/s00464-016-5245-7

Cholecystitis

Bloom, A. A. (2019). Cholecystitis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/171886

European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL). (2016). EASL Clinical practice guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of gallstones. Journal of Hepatology, 65 (1), 146-181. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.03.005.

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Cholecystitis. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Tazuma, S., Unno, M., Igarashi, Y. et al. (2017). Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for cholelithiasis 2016. Journal of Gastroenterology. 52, 276. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00535-016-1289-7

Colic

Benninga, M., Nurko, S., Faure, C., Hyman, P. E., St. James Roberts, I. & Schechter, N. L. (2016). Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: neonate/toddler. Gastroenterology, 150 (6), 1443-1455.e2. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.016

Deshpande, P.G. (2017). Colic. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/927760

Gordon, M., Biagioli, E., Sorrenti, M., Lingua, C., Moja, L., Banks, S. S., … & Savino, F. (2018). Dietary modifications for infantile colic. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011029.pub2

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Colic. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Johnson, J.D., Crocker, K., & Chang, E. (2015). Infantile colic: recognition and treatment. American Family Physician, 92 (7), 577-582. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p577.html

Sung, V. (2018). Infantile colic. Australian Prescriber, 41(4), p. 105-110. doi:10.18773/austprescr.2018.033

Constipation

American Gastroenterological Association. (2013). American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on constipation. Gastroenterology, 144, 211-217. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2012.10.029

Andromanakos, N. P., Pinis, S. I., & Kostakis, A. I. (2015). Chronic severe constipation: current pathophysiological aspects, new diagnostic approaches, and therapeutic options. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 27 (3), 204-214. Doi: 10.1097/meg.0000000000000288.

Chaney, A. (2016). Constipation. In: Fact Facts about GI and Liver Diseases for Nurses: What APRNs Need to Know in a Nutshell. Springer Publishing.

Goroll, A. H., Mulley, A. G. (2014). Primary Care Medicine: Office Evaluation and Management of the Adult Patient (7th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Paquette, I. M., Varma, M., Ternent, C., Melton-Meaux, G., Rafferty, J. F., Feingold, D., Steele, S. R. (2016). The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons’ clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of constipation. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 59, 479-492. DOI: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000000599

Roque, M. V., Bouras, E. P. (2015). Epidemiology and management of chronic constipation in elderly patients. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 10, 19-930. doi:10.2147/CIA.S54304

Tabbers, M. M., DiLorenzo, C., Berger, M. Y., Faure, C., Langendam, M. W., Nurko, S., Staiano, A., Vandenplas,Y., & Benninga, M. A. (2014). Evaluation and treatment of functional constipation in infants and children: evidence-based recommendations from ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN. Journal of Pediatric Gastrointestinal and Nutrition, 58 258–274. https://www.naspghan.org/files/documents/pdfs/position-papers/Constipation_Feb_2014.pdf

Crohn's Disease

Danese, S., Banerjee, R., Cummings, J. F., Dotan, I., Kotze, P.G., Leong, R. W. L., Paridaens, K., Peyrin-Biroulet, L., Scott, G., Assche, G.V., Wehkamp, J., Yamamoto-Furusho, J.K. (2018). Consensus recommendations for patient-centered therapy in mild to moderate ulcerative colitis: the i Support Therapy-Access to Rapid Treatment (iSTART) approach. Intestinal Research. 16 (4), 522-528. doi: 10.5217/ir.2018.00073

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Crohn’s disease. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Lee, B. E., & Pang, X.-L. (2013). New strains of norovirus and the mystery of viral gastroenteritis epidemics. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 185 (16), 1381-1382. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.130426

Nguyen, G. C., Loftus, E. V., Hirano, I., & AGA Institute Clinical Guidelines Committee. (2017). American Gastroenterological Association Institute guideline on the management of Crohn’s disease after surgical resection. Gastroenterology. 152 (1): 271-275 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.10.038

Singh, S., Fumery, M., Sandborn, W. J., Murad, M. H. (2018). Systematic review with network meta‐analysis: first‐ and second‐line pharmacotherapy for moderate‐severe ulcerative colitis. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 47, 162-175. https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.14422

Diverticulitis

Chaney, A. (2016). Diverticular Disease. In: Fast Facts About GI and Liver Diseases for Nurses: What APRNs need to know in a nutshell. Springer Publishing.

Collins, D. Winter, D. C. (2015). Modern concepts in diverticular diseae. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 49(5), 358-369. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000308

Goroll, A. H., Mulley, A. G. (2014). Primary Care Medicine: Office Evaluation and Mangement of the Adult Patient, 7th ed. (pp. 459-628). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Mosadeghi, S., Bhuket, T., Stollman, N. (2015). Diverticular disease: evolving concepts in classification, presentation, and management. Current Opinions in Gastroenterology, 31(1), 50-55. doi: 10.1097/mog.0000000000000145

Stollman, N., Smalley, W., Hirano, I., & AGA Institute Clinical Guidelines Committee, American Gastroenterological Association Institute guideline on the management of acute diverticulitis. (2015). Gastroenterology. 149 (7), 1944-1949. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2015.10.003

Vennix, S., Morton, D. G., Hahnloser, D., Lange, J. F., & Bemelman, W. A. (2014). Systematic review of evidence and consensus on diverticulitis: an analysis of national and international guidelines. Colorectal Disease 16(11), 866-878. doi: 10.1111/codi.12659.

Wilkins, T., Embry, K., George, R. (2013). Diagnosis and management of acute diverticulitis. American Family Physician. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0501/p612.html

Encopresis

Borowitz, S. M. (2017). Encopresis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/928795-overview#a3

Davis, J. L. (2016). Identifying underlying emotional instability and utilizing a combined intervention in the treatment of childhood constipation and encopresis: a case report. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 22 (6), 489-492. doi: 10.1089/acm.2015.0093

Gibas-Dorna, M., & Piątek, J. (2014). Functional constipation in children: evaluation and management. Gastroenterology Review, 9 (4), 194-199. doi: 10.5114/pg2014.45099

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Encopresis. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Rao, S. S. C., Bharucha, A. E., Chiarioni, G., Felt-Bersma, R., Knowles, C., Malcom, A., & Wald, A. (2016). Anorectal disorders. Gastroenterology, 150 (6), 1430-1442. doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.009

Schmulson, M. J., & Drossman, D. A. (2017). What is new in Rome IV? Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, 23 (2), 151-163. Doi: 10.5056/jnm16214

Shepard, J. A., Poler, J. E., & Grabman, J. H. (2017). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for pediatric elimination disorders. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 46 (6), 767-797. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2016.1247356

Tabbers, M., Dilorenzo, C., Berger, M., Faure, C., Langendam, M., Nurko, S., … Benninga, M. (2014). Evaluation and treatment of functional constipation in infants and children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 58 (2), 265-281. Doi: 10.1097/mpg.0000000000000266

Vuletic, B. (2017). Encopresis in children: an overview of recent findings. Serbain Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 18 (2), 157-161. doi: 10.1515/sjecr-2016-0027

Functional Abdominal Pain: Pediatric

Brown, L. K., Beattie, R. M., & Tighe, M. P. (2016). Practical management of functional abdominal pain in children. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 10 (7), 677-683. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2014-306426

Brusaferro, A., Farinelli, E., Zenzeri, L., Cozzali, R., & Esposito, S. (2018). The management of pediatric functional abdominal pain. Pediatric Drugs, 20(3), 235-247. doi:10.1007/s40272-018-0287-z

Hijaz, N. M. & Friesen, C. A. (2017). Managing acute abdominal pain in pediatric patients: current perspectives. Pediatric Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 8, 83-91. doi: 10.2147/PHMT.S120156

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Functional abdominal pain. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates

McClelland, N. & Ahlawat, R. (2019). Functional abdominal pain in children. Stat Pearls. https://www.statpearls.com/kb/viewarticle/21990

Quak, S.H. (2015). Recurrent abdominal pain in children: a clinical approach. Singapore Medical Journal, 56(3), 125-128. doi:10.11622/smedj.2015038

Reust, C. E. & Williams, A. (2016). Acute abdominal pain in children. American Family Physician, 93(10), 830-837. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0515/p830.html

Reust, C. E. & Williams, A. (2018). Recurrent abdominal pain in children. American Family Physician, 97(12), 785-793. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p785.html

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Boeckxstaens, G., El-Serag, H. B., Smout, A. J., Kahrilas, P. J. (2015). Symptomatic reflux disease: the present, the past and the future. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 91 (1071), 46-54. Doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2013-306393rep

Fogleman, C., Korbin, L. (2018). Feed thickener for newborn infants with gastroesophageal reflux. American Family Physician, 98, 275-276. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p275.html

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Gastroesophageal reflux disease. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed., pp. 260-264). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Hunt, R., Armstrong, D., Katelaris, P., Afihene, M., Bane, A., Bhatia, S., … LeMair, A. (2017). World Gastroenterology Organization Global Guidelines: GERD global perspective on gastroesophageal reflux disease. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 51, 467-478. Doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000854

Sandhu, S., Fass., R. (2018). Current trends in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gut and Liver, 12, 7-16. doi: 10.5009/gnl16615

Thomas, D. (2019). Gastric and intestinal disorders. In Dunphy, L., Winland-Brown, J., Porter, B., & Thomas, D. (5th ed.) Primary Care: The Art and Science of Advanced Practice Nursing – An Interprofessional Approach (pp. 565-569). F.A. Davis.

U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2020). FDA Updates and Press Announcements on NDMA in Zantac (ranitidine). https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-updates-and-press-announcements-ndma-zantac-ranitidine

Whetsel, T. (2019). Heartburn: appropriate use of OTC medications. In The Rx Consultant: Improving Patient Care Through Drug Education. Continuing Education Network, Inc. Available at https://rxconsultant.com/index.cfm

Hemorrhoids

Andromanakos, N. P., Pinis, S. I., Kostakis, A. I. (2015). Chronic severe constipation: current pathophysiological aspects, new diagnostic approaches, and therapeutic options. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 27(3), 204-214. Doi: 10.1097/meg.0000000000000288.

Mott, T., Latimer, K., & Edwards, C. (2018). Hemorrhoids: diagnosis and treatment options. American Family Physician, 97(3):172-179.

Wald, A., Bharucha, A. E., Cosman, B. C., Whitehead, W. E. (2014). American College of Gastroenterology clinical guideline: Management of benign anorectal disorders. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 109(8), 1141-1157. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2014.190

Hepatitis, Viral

American Association for the Study of Liver Disease. (2019). HCV guidance: recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C. https://www.hcvguidelines.org/sites/default/files/full-guidance-pdf/200206_HCVGuidance_November_06_2019_a.pdf

Cacouba, P., Granagia, L, Comarmonda, C., Zignegoe, A. (2014). Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Digestive and Liver Disease, 46(5): S165–S173. doi: 10.1177/2049936115585942

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). ACIP Immunization Schedule. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.htmL

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Hepatitis A questions and answers for healthcare professionals. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hav/havfaq.htm#protection

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019) Hepatitis B questions and answers for healthcare professionals. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hbv/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Hepatitis C questions and answers for healthcare professionals. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hcv/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Hepatitis E questions and answers for healthcare professionals. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hev/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/statistics/2017surveillance/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR, 67(1), 1-31. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr6701a1

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines. Viral hepatitis. http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/hepatitis.htm

Nelson, N. P. (2017). Updated dosing instructions for immune globulin (human) GamaSTAN S/D for hepatitis A virus prophylaxis. MMWR, 66, 959-960. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6636a5

Patel, E., Thio, C., Boon, T., et al. (2019). Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus infections in the United States, 2011-2016, Clinical Infectious Diseases, 69(4), 709-712.

Schillie, S., Vellozzi, C., Reingold, A., et al. (2018). Prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR 67 (No. RR-1), 1-31. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr6701a1

Terrault, N., Lok, A., McMahon, B., Chang, K., Hwang, J., Jonas, M., Brown, R., Bzowej, N., Wong, J. (2018). Update on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic hepatitis B: AASLD 2018 hepatitis B guidance. Hepatology, 67(4), 1540-1599. doi: 10.1002/hep.29800

Yurdaydin, C. Keskin, O., Kalkan, Ç., et al (2018). Optimizing lonafarnib treatment for the management of chronic delta hepatitis: The LOWR HDV‐1 Study. Hepatology, 67, 1224-1236. doi: 10.1002/hep.29658

Hirschsprung's Disease

Gosain, A., Frykman, P. K., Cowles, R. A., Horton, J., Levitt, M., Rothstein, D. H., …& Goldstein, A.M. (2017). American Pediatric Surgical Association Hirschsprung Disease Interest Group. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis. Pediatric Surgery International, 33(5), 517–521. doi:10.1007/s00383-017-4065-8

Huang, W. K., Li, X. L., Zhang, J., & Zhang, S. C. (2018). Prevalence, risk factors, and prognosis of postoperative complications after surgery for Hirschsprung disease. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 22(2), 335-343. doi: 10.1007/s11605-017-3596-6

Lof Granstrom, A., Svenningsson, A., Hagel, E., Oddsberg, J., Nordenskjold, A., & Wester, T. (2016). Maternal risk factors and perinatal characteristics for Hirschsprung disease. Pediatrics, (138), 1. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-4608

Moore, S.W. (2016). Hirschsprung disease: Current perspectives. Dove Press, (9), 39-50. doi: https://doi.org/10.2147/OAS.S81552

Reuter-Rice K. & Bolick, B. (2015). Gastrointestinal disorders. In Pediatric Acute Care: A Guide for Interprofessional Practice. Jones and Bartlett.

Wagner, J.P. (2020). Hirschsprung’s disease. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/178493

Inguinal Hernia

Berger, D. (2016). Evidence-based hernia treatment. Deutsches Artzblatt International, 113, 150-158. doi: 10.3238/artzebl.2016.0150

Burcharth, J., Pedersen, M., Bisgaard, T., Pedersen, C., & Rosenberg, J. (2013). Nationwide prevalence of groin hernia repair. PloS One, 8(1), e54367.

HerniaSurge Group. (2018). International guidelines for groin hernia management. Hernia, 22(1), 1-165. doi: 10.1007/s10029-017-1668-x

Hewitt, D.B. (2017). Groin hernia. JAMA. 317(24), 2560. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.1556

Pawlak, M., Niebuhr, H. & Bury, K. (2015). Dynamic inguinal ultrasound: a diagnostic tool for hernia surgeons. Hernia, 19:1033. doi: 10.1007/s10029-015-1356-7

Perez Lara, F. J., del Ray Moreno, A., Munoz, H. O. (2015). Hernia, 19, 703-712. doi: 10.1007/s10029-014-1319-4

Williamson, J. S., Jones, H. G., Radwan, R. R., & Rasheed, A. (2016). Inguinal hernias associated with a single strenuous event. Hernia, 20, 687-690. doi: 10.1007/s10029-016-1505-7

Intussusception

Caruso, A. M., Pane, A., Scanu, A., Muscas, A., Garau, R., Caddeo, F. & Mascia, L. (2017). Intussusception in children: Not only surgical treatment. Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine, 6(1). doi:10.7363/060135

Gluckman, S., Karpelowsky, J., Webster, A. C., McGee, R. G. (2017). Management for intussusception in children. Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews, 1(6):CD006476. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006476.pub3

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Intussusception. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Hollier, J. M., Pimpalwar, A. P., Fishman, D. S., Popek, E. J., Himes, R. W. (2014). Infantile intussusception. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 58(4), e36, doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000000304

Lin, X. K., Xia, Q. Z., Huang, X. Z., Han, Y. J., He, G. R., Zheng, N. (2017). Clinical characteristics of intussusception secondary to pathologic lead points in children: a single center experience with 65 cases. Pediatric Surgery Interventions, 33(7), 793-797. doi: 10.1007/s00383-017-4101-8

Uyulmaz, S., Zund, M., Casper, U., Diebold, J., & Slankamenac, K. (2018). Intussusception in unspecified recurrent abdominal pain in adult: A case report. Sage Journals, (6), https://doi.org/10.1177/2050313X18792814

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Carrasco-Labra, A., Lytvyn, L., Falck-Ytter, Y., Surawicz, C. M., Chey, W. D. (2019). AGA technical review on the evaluation of functional diarrhea and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in adults (IBS-D). Gastroenterology 157(3), 859-880. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.06.014

Smalley, W., Falck-Ytter, C., Carrasco-Labra, A., Wani, S., Lytvyn, L., Falck-Ytter, Y. (2019). AGA clinical practice guidelines on the laboratory evaluation of functional diarrhea and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in adults (IBS-D). Gastroenterology, 157(3), 851-854. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.07.004

Weinberg, D. S., Smalley, W., Heidelbaugh, J. J., & Sultan, S. (2014). American Gastroenterological Association Institute guideline on the pharmacological management of irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 147(5): 1146-1148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2014.09.001

Nausea and Vomiting

American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 189: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 131(1): e15-e30. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002456.

Anzemet. (2017). PDR. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Anzemet-Tablets-dolasetron-mesylate-506.8229

Brown, T. (2017). New guidelines on nausea, vomiting in pregnancy. Medscape. https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/890504

Consolini, D. M. (n.d.). Nausea and vomiting in infants and children. Merck Manual Online. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/symptoms-in-infants-and-children/nausea-and-vomiting-in-infants-and-children

Flake, Z., Linn, B., & Hornecker, J. (2015). Practical selection of antiemetics in the ambulatory setting. American Family Physician, 91(5):293-296. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0301/p293.html

Metoclopramide. (2020). PDR. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Reglan-Tablets-metoclopramide-956.5843#14

Ondansetron. (2020). PDR. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Ondansetron-ondansetron-hydrochloride-3428.2904#6

Promethazine hydrochloride. (2020). PDR. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Promethazine-Hydrochloride-Tablets-promethazine-hydrochloride-1288

Thorazine. (2020). PDR. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Chlorpromazine-Hydrochloride-Tablets-chlorpromazine-hydrochloride-693.423#5

Scopolamine. (2020). PDR. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Transderm-Scop-scopolamine-415#4

Schwartzberg, L.S. (2017). Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: strategies for prevention and treatment. Clinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology, 15 (12), 906-913.

Singh, P., Yoon, S. S., & Kuo, B. (2016). Nausea: a review of pathophysiology and therapeutics. Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, 9(1), 98-112. doi:10.1177/1756283X15618131

Russell, A. C., Stone, A. L., & Walker, L. S. (2016). Functional nausea in children: a review of the literature and need for diagnostic criteria. Children (Basel, Switzerland), 3(1), 5. doi:10.3390/children3010005

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Chalasani N., Younossi, Z., Lavine, J. E., Charlton, M., Cusi, K., Rinella, M., Harrison, S. A., Brunt, E. M., Sanyal, A. J. (2018). The diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Practice guidance from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology, 67, 328-357. doi: 10.1002/hep.29367

Corrado, R. L., Torres, D. M., Harrison, S. A. (2014). Review of treatment options for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Medical Clinics of North America, 98(1), 55-72. Doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2013.09.001

Marzuillo, P., Grandone, A., Perrone, L., Miraglia Del Giudice, E. (2015). Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms in the pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: The role of genetics. World Journal of Hepatology, 7(11), 1439-1443. Doi: 10.4254/wjh.v7.i11.1439

Peptic Ulcer Disease

Chey, W.D., Leontiadis, G.I., Howden, C.W., Moss, S.F. (2017). ACG Clinical Guideline: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. American Journal of Gastroenterology 112:212. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2016.563

Fallone, C.A., Chiba, N., Van Zanteri, et al. (2016). The Toronto Consensus for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in adults. Gastroenterology 15:51. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.04.006

Fashner, J., Gitu, A. C. (2015). Diagnosis and treatment of peptic ulcer disease and H. pylori infection. American Family Physician, 91(4), 236-242.

Hollier, A. (Ed). (2018). Peptic ulcer disease. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Pinworm Infection

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Parasites-Enterobiasis: Resources for health professionals. https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/pinworm/health_professionals/index.html

Hamilton, R. J. (Ed.). (2020). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia. Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Pinworm infection. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Khubchandani, I. T. & Bub, D. S. (2019). Parasitic infections. Clinics in Colon Rectal Surgery, 32(5), 364-371. doi:10.1055/s-0039-1687832

Wendt, S., Trawinski, H., Schubert, S., Rodloff, A. C., Mossner, J. & Lubbert, C. (2019). The diagnosis and treatment of pinworm infection. Deutsches Arzeblatt International, 116, 213-219.

Pyloric Stenosis

Burns, C. E., Brady, M., & Dunn, A., Starr, N.B., Blosser, C.G. (2016). Pediatric Primary Care: A handbook for nurse practitioners. W. B. Saunders.

Nazer, H. (2017). Pediatric hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/929829

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Pyloric stenosis. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Subramaniam, S. (2018). Pediatric pyloric stenosis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/803489

Recurrent Abdominal Pain: Adult

Hollier, A. (Ed.). Recurrent abdominal pain: Adult. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

International Foundation for Gastrointestinal Disorders. (2019). Functional abdominal pain syndrome. https://www.iffgd.org/lower-gi-disorders/functional-abdominal-pain-syndrome.html

Yarze, J. C. & Friedman, L. S. (2016). Chronic abdominal pain. In M. Feldman, L. S. Friedman, & L. J. Brandt (Eds.), Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. (10th ed.). Elsevier.

Ulcerative Colitis

Basson, M.D. (2017). Ulcerative colitis treatment & management. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/183084

Bressler, B., et al, for the Toronto Ulcerative Colitis Consensus Group. (2015). Clinical practice guidelines for the medical management of nonhospitalized ulcerative colitis: The Toronto Consensus. Gastroenterology 148(5): 1035-1058.e3. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.03.00

Kornbluth, A., Sachar, D. B. (2010). Ulcerative colitis practice guidelines in adults: American College of Gastroenterology Practice Parameters Committee. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 105(3), 501-523. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2009.727

Osterman, M. T., Lichtenstein, G. R. (2016). Ulcerative colitis. In M. Feldman, L.S. Friedman, & L.J. Brandt (Eds.) Sleisenger and Fordtran’s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, 2023-2061. Elsevier Saunders.

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