Gastrointestinal Disorders

Acute Gastroenteritis


Chaney, A. (2016). Diarrhea. In Fast Facts About GI and Liver Diseases for Nurses: What APRNs Need to Know in a Nutshell. Springer Publishing.


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Acute gastroenteritis. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Prescilla, R.P. (2018). Pediatric gastroenteritis treatment and management. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/964131-treatment


Riddle, M. S., DuPont, H. L., Connor, B. A. (2016). ACG clinical guideline: diagnosis, treatment and prevention of acute diarrheal infections in adults. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 41 (5), 602-622. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2016.126


Shane, A.L., Mody, R. K., Crump, J.A., et al. (2017). 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of infectious diarrhea. Clincal Infectious Diseases, 65 (12); e45-e80. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix669


Zofran. (n.d.). Drugs.com. https://www.drugs.com/pro/zofran.html


Appendicitis


Craig, S. (2018). Appendicitis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/773895


Gorter, R. R., Eker, H., Gorter-Stam, M., Gabor, S. A., … Deelder, J. D. (2016). Diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis. EAES consensus development conference 2015. Surgical Endoscopy. 30 (11), 4668-4690. doi: 10.1007/s00464-016-5245-7


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Appendicitis. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Kirkil, C., Yigit, M. V., & Aygen, E. (2014). Long-term results of nonoperative treatment for uncomplicated acute appendicitis. Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology, 25 (4), 393-397. doi: 10.5152/tjg.2014.7192


Mohammed, A., Shanbhag, V., Ashfaque, K. (2014). A comparative study of RIPASA score and ALVARADO score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Journal of Clinical Diagnostic Research, 8 (11), NC03-05. doi: 10.7860/jcdr/2014/9055.5170


Ramone, R., et al. (2016). Diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis. EAES consensus development conference 2015. Surgical Endoscopy 30 (11): 4668-4690. doi: 10.1007/s00464-016-5245-7


Cholecystitis


Bloom, A. A. (2019). Cholecystitis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/171886


European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL). (2016). EASL Clinical practice guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of gallstones. Journal of Hepatology, 65 (1), 146-181. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.03.005.


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Cholecystitis. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Tazuma, S., Unno, M., Igarashi, Y. et al. (2017). Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for cholelithiasis 2016. Journal of Gastroenterology. 52, 276. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00535-016-1289-7


Colic


Benninga, M., Nurko, S., Faure, C., Hyman, P. E., St. James Roberts, I. & Schechter, N. L. (2016). Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: neonate/toddler. Gastroenterology, 150 (6), 1443-1455.e2. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.016


Deshpande, P.G. (2017). Colic. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/927760


Gordon, M., Biagioli, E., Sorrenti, M., Lingua, C., Moja, L., Banks, S. S., … & Savino, F. (2018). Dietary modifications for infantile colic. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011029.pub2


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Colic. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Johnson, J.D., Crocker, K., & Chang, E. (2015). Infantile colic: recognition and treatment. American Family Physician, 92 (7), 577-582. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p577.html


Sung, V. (2018). Infantile colic. Australian Prescriber, 41(4), p. 105-110. doi:10.18773/austprescr.2018.033


Constipation


American Gastroenterological Association. (2013). American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on constipation. Gastroenterology, 144, 211-217. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2012.10.029


Andromanakos, N. P., Pinis, S. I., & Kostakis, A. I. (2015). Chronic severe constipation: current pathophysiological aspects, new diagnostic approaches, and therapeutic options. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 27 (3), 204-214. Doi: 10.1097/meg.0000000000000288.


Chaney, A. (2016). Constipation. In: Fact Facts about GI and Liver Diseases for Nurses: What APRNs Need to Know in a Nutshell. Springer Publishing.


Goroll, A. H., Mulley, A. G. (2014). Primary Care Medicine: Office Evaluation and Management of the Adult Patient (7th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Paquette, I. M., Varma, M., Ternent, C., Melton-Meaux, G., Rafferty, J. F., Feingold, D., Steele, S. R. (2016). The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons’ clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of constipation. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 59, 479-492. DOI: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000000599


Roque, M. V., Bouras, E. P. (2015). Epidemiology and management of chronic constipation in elderly patients. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 10, 19-930. doi:10.2147/CIA.S54304


Tabbers, M. M., DiLorenzo, C., Berger, M. Y., Faure, C., Langendam, M. W., Nurko, S., Staiano, A., Vandenplas,Y., & Benninga, M. A. (2014). Evaluation and treatment of functional constipation in infants and children: evidence-based recommendations from ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN. Journal of Pediatric Gastrointestinal and Nutrition, 58 258–274. https://www.naspghan.org/files/documents/pdfs/position-papers/Constipation_Feb_2014.pdf


Crohn's Disease


Danese, S., Banerjee, R., Cummings, J. F., Dotan, I., Kotze, P.G., Leong, R. W. L., Paridaens, K., Peyrin-Biroulet, L., Scott, G., Assche, G.V., Wehkamp, J., Yamamoto-Furusho, J.K. (2018). Consensus recommendations for patient-centered therapy in mild to moderate ulcerative colitis: the i Support Therapy-Access to Rapid Treatment (iSTART) approach. Intestinal Research. 16 (4), 522-528. doi: 10.5217/ir.2018.00073


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Crohn’s disease. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Lee, B. E., & Pang, X.-L. (2013). New strains of norovirus and the mystery of viral gastroenteritis epidemics. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 185 (16), 1381-1382. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.130426


Nguyen, G. C., Loftus, E. V., Hirano, I., & AGA Institute Clinical Guidelines Committee. (2017). American Gastroenterological Association Institute guideline on the management of Crohn’s disease after surgical resection. Gastroenterology. 152 (1): 271-275 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.10.038


Singh, S., Fumery, M., Sandborn, W. J., Murad, M. H. (2018). Systematic review with network meta‐analysis: first‐ and second‐line pharmacotherapy for moderate‐severe ulcerative colitis. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 47, 162-175. https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.14422


Diverticulitis


Chaney, A. (2016). Diverticular Disease. In: Fast Facts About GI and Liver Diseases for Nurses: What APRNs need to know in a nutshell. Springer Publishing.


Collins, D. Winter, D. C. (2015). Modern concepts in diverticular diseae. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 49(5), 358-369. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000308


Goroll, A. H., Mulley, A. G. (2014). Primary Care Medicine: Office Evaluation and Mangement of the Adult Patient, 7th ed. (pp. 459-628). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Mosadeghi, S., Bhuket, T., Stollman, N. (2015). Diverticular disease: evolving concepts in classification, presentation, and management. Current Opinions in Gastroenterology, 31(1), 50-55. doi: 10.1097/mog.0000000000000145


Stollman, N., Smalley, W., Hirano, I., & AGA Institute Clinical Guidelines Committee, American Gastroenterological Association Institute guideline on the management of acute diverticulitis. (2015). Gastroenterology. 149 (7), 1944-1949. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2015.10.003


Vennix, S., Morton, D. G., Hahnloser, D., Lange, J. F., & Bemelman, W. A. (2014). Systematic review of evidence and consensus on diverticulitis: an analysis of national and international guidelines. Colorectal Disease 16(11), 866-878. doi: 10.1111/codi.12659.


Wilkins, T., Embry, K., George, R. (2013). Diagnosis and management of acute diverticulitis. American Family Physician. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0501/p612.html


Encopresis


Borowitz, S. M. (2017). Encopresis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/928795-overview#a3


Davis, J. L. (2016). Identifying underlying emotional instability and utilizing a combined intervention in the treatment of childhood constipation and encopresis: a case report. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 22 (6), 489-492. doi: 10.1089/acm.2015.0093


Gibas-Dorna, M., & Piątek, J. (2014). Functional constipation in children: evaluation and management. Gastroenterology Review, 9 (4), 194-199. doi: 10.5114/pg2014.45099


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Encopresis. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Rao, S. S. C., Bharucha, A. E., Chiarioni, G., Felt-Bersma, R., Knowles, C., Malcom, A., & Wald, A. (2016). Anorectal disorders. Gastroenterology, 150 (6), 1430-1442. doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.009


Schmulson, M. J., & Drossman, D. A. (2017). What is new in Rome IV? Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, 23 (2), 151-163. Doi: 10.5056/jnm16214


Shepard, J. A., Poler, J. E., & Grabman, J. H. (2017). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for pediatric elimination disorders. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 46 (6), 767-797. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2016.1247356


Tabbers, M., Dilorenzo, C., Berger, M., Faure, C., Langendam, M., Nurko, S., … Benninga, M. (2014). Evaluation and treatment of functional constipation in infants and children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 58 (2), 265-281. Doi: 10.1097/mpg.0000000000000266


Vuletic, B. (2017). Encopresis in children: an overview of recent findings. Serbain Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 18 (2), 157-161. doi: 10.1515/sjecr-2016-0027


Functional Abdominal Pain: Pediatric


Brown, L. K., Beattie, R. M., & Tighe, M. P. (2016). Practical management of functional abdominal pain in children. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 10 (7), 677-683. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2014-306426


Brusaferro, A., Farinelli, E., Zenzeri, L., Cozzali, R., & Esposito, S. (2018). The management of pediatric functional abdominal pain. Pediatric Drugs, 20(3), 235-247. doi:10.1007/s40272-018-0287-z


Hijaz, N. M. & Friesen, C. A. (2017). Managing acute abdominal pain in pediatric patients: current perspectives. Pediatric Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 8, 83-91. doi: 10.2147/PHMT.S120156


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Functional abdominal pain. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates


McClelland, N. & Ahlawat, R. (2019). Functional abdominal pain in children. Stat Pearls. https://www.statpearls.com/kb/viewarticle/21990


Quak, S.H. (2015). Recurrent abdominal pain in children: a clinical approach. Singapore Medical Journal, 56(3), 125-128. doi:10.11622/smedj.2015038


Reust, C. E. & Williams, A. (2016). Acute abdominal pain in children. American Family Physician, 93(10), 830-837. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0515/p830.html


Reust, C. E. & Williams, A. (2018). Recurrent abdominal pain in children. American Family Physician, 97(12), 785-793. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p785.html


Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease


Boeckxstaens, G., El-Serag, H. B., Smout, A. J., Kahrilas, P. J. (2015). Symptomatic reflux disease: the present, the past and the future. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 91 (1071), 46-54. Doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2013-306393rep


Fogleman, C., Korbin, L. (2018). Feed thickener for newborn infants with gastroesophageal reflux. American Family Physician, 98, 275-276. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p275.html


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Gastroesophageal reflux disease. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed., pp. 260-264). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Hunt, R., Armstrong, D., Katelaris, P., Afihene, M., Bane, A., Bhatia, S., … LeMair, A. (2017). World Gastroenterology Organization Global Guidelines: GERD global perspective on gastroesophageal reflux disease. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 51, 467-478. Doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000854

Sandhu, S., Fass., R. (2018). Current trends in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gut and Liver, 12, 7-16. doi: 10.5009/gnl16615


Thomas, D. (2019). Gastric and intestinal disorders. In Dunphy, L., Winland-Brown, J., Porter, B., & Thomas, D. (5th ed.) Primary Care: The Art and Science of Advanced Practice Nursing – An Interprofessional Approach (pp. 565-569). F.A. Davis.


U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2020). FDA Updates and Press Announcements on NDMA in Zantac (ranitidine). https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-updates-and-press-announcements-ndma-zantac-ranitidine


Whetsel, T. (2019). Heartburn: appropriate use of OTC medications. In The Rx Consultant: Improving Patient Care Through Drug Education. Continuing Education Network, Inc. Available at https://rxconsultant.com/index.cfm


Hemorrhoids


Andromanakos, N. P., Pinis, S. I., Kostakis, A. I. (2015). Chronic severe constipation: current pathophysiological aspects, new diagnostic approaches, and therapeutic options. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 27(3), 204-214. Doi: 10.1097/meg.0000000000000288.


Mott, T., Latimer, K., & Edwards, C. (2018). Hemorrhoids: diagnosis and treatment options. American Family Physician, 97(3):172-179.


Wald, A., Bharucha, A. E., Cosman, B. C., Whitehead, W. E. (2014). American College of Gastroenterology clinical guideline: Management of benign anorectal disorders. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 109(8), 1141-1157. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2014.190





Hepatitis, Viral


American Association for the Study of Liver Disease. (2019). HCV guidance: recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C. https://www.hcvguidelines.org/sites/default/files/full-guidance-pdf/200206_HCVGuidance_November_06_2019_a.pdf


Cacouba, P., Granagia, L, Comarmonda, C., Zignegoe, A. (2014). Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Digestive and Liver Disease, 46(5): S165–S173. doi: 10.1177/2049936115585942


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). ACIP Immunization Schedule. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.htmL


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Hepatitis A questions and answers for healthcare professionals. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hav/havfaq.htm#protection


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019) Hepatitis B questions and answers for healthcare professionals. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hbv/index.htm


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Hepatitis C questions and answers for healthcare professionals. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hcv/index.htm


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Hepatitis E questions and answers for healthcare professionals. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hev/index.htm


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/statistics/2017surveillance/index.htm


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR, 67(1), 1-31. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr6701a1


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines. Viral hepatitis. http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/hepatitis.htm


Nelson, N. P. (2017). Updated dosing instructions for immune globulin (human) GamaSTAN S/D for hepatitis A virus prophylaxis. MMWR, 66, 959-960. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6636a5


Patel, E., Thio, C., Boon, T., et al. (2019). Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus infections in the United States, 2011-2016, Clinical Infectious Diseases, 69(4), 709-712.


Schillie, S., Vellozzi, C., Reingold, A., et al. (2018). Prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR 67 (No. RR-1), 1-31. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr6701a1


Terrault, N., Lok, A., McMahon, B., Chang, K., Hwang, J., Jonas, M., Brown, R., Bzowej, N., Wong, J. (2018). Update on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic hepatitis B: AASLD 2018 hepatitis B guidance. Hepatology, 67(4), 1540-1599. doi: 10.1002/hep.29800


Yurdaydin, C. Keskin, O., Kalkan, Ç., et al (2018). Optimizing lonafarnib treatment for the management of chronic delta hepatitis: The LOWR HDV‐1 Study. Hepatology, 67, 1224-1236. doi: 10.1002/hep.29658


Hirschsprung's Disease


Gosain, A., Frykman, P. K., Cowles, R. A., Horton, J., Levitt, M., Rothstein, D. H., …& Goldstein, A.M. (2017). American Pediatric Surgical Association Hirschsprung Disease Interest Group. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis. Pediatric Surgery International, 33(5), 517–521. doi:10.1007/s00383-017-4065-8


Huang, W. K., Li, X. L., Zhang, J., & Zhang, S. C. (2018). Prevalence, risk factors, and prognosis of postoperative complications after surgery for Hirschsprung disease. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 22(2), 335-343. doi: 10.1007/s11605-017-3596-6


Lof Granstrom, A., Svenningsson, A., Hagel, E., Oddsberg, J., Nordenskjold, A., & Wester, T. (2016). Maternal risk factors and perinatal characteristics for Hirschsprung disease. Pediatrics, (138), 1. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-4608


Moore, S.W. (2016). Hirschsprung disease: Current perspectives. Dove Press, (9), 39-50. doi: https://doi.org/10.2147/OAS.S81552


Reuter-Rice K. & Bolick, B. (2015). Gastrointestinal disorders. In Pediatric Acute Care: A Guide for Interprofessional Practice. Jones and Bartlett.


Wagner, J.P. (2020). Hirschsprung’s disease. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/178493


Inguinal Hernia


Berger, D. (2016). Evidence-based hernia treatment. Deutsches Artzblatt International, 113, 150-158. doi: 10.3238/artzebl.2016.0150


Burcharth, J., Pedersen, M., Bisgaard, T., Pedersen, C., & Rosenberg, J. (2013). Nationwide prevalence of groin hernia repair. PloS One, 8(1), e54367.


HerniaSurge Group. (2018). International guidelines for groin hernia management. Hernia, 22(1), 1-165. doi: 10.1007/s10029-017-1668-x


Hewitt, D.B. (2017). Groin hernia. JAMA. 317(24), 2560. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.1556


Pawlak, M., Niebuhr, H. & Bury, K. (2015). Dynamic inguinal ultrasound: a diagnostic tool for hernia surgeons. Hernia, 19:1033. doi: 10.1007/s10029-015-1356-7


Perez Lara, F. J., del Ray Moreno, A., Munoz, H. O. (2015). Hernia, 19, 703-712. doi: 10.1007/s10029-014-1319-4


Williamson, J. S., Jones, H. G., Radwan, R. R., & Rasheed, A. (2016). Inguinal hernias associated with a single strenuous event. Hernia, 20, 687-690. doi: 10.1007/s10029-016-1505-7


Intussusception


Caruso, A. M., Pane, A., Scanu, A., Muscas, A., Garau, R., Caddeo, F. & Mascia, L. (2017). Intussusception in children: Not only surgical treatment. Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine, 6(1). doi:10.7363/060135


Gluckman, S., Karpelowsky, J., Webster, A. C., McGee, R. G. (2017). Management for intussusception in children. Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews, 1(6):CD006476. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006476.pub3


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Intussusception. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Hollier, J. M., Pimpalwar, A. P., Fishman, D. S., Popek, E. J., Himes, R. W. (2014). Infantile intussusception. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 58(4), e36, doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000000304


Lin, X. K., Xia, Q. Z., Huang, X. Z., Han, Y. J., He, G. R., Zheng, N. (2017). Clinical characteristics of intussusception secondary to pathologic lead points in children: a single center experience with 65 cases. Pediatric Surgery Interventions, 33(7), 793-797. doi: 10.1007/s00383-017-4101-8


Uyulmaz, S., Zund, M., Casper, U., Diebold, J., & Slankamenac, K. (2018). Intussusception in unspecified recurrent abdominal pain in adult: A case report. Sage Journals, (6), https://doi.org/10.1177/2050313X18792814


Irritable Bowel Syndrome


Carrasco-Labra, A., Lytvyn, L., Falck-Ytter, Y., Surawicz, C. M., Chey, W. D. (2019). AGA technical review on the evaluation of functional diarrhea and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in adults (IBS-D). Gastroenterology 157(3), 859-880. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.06.014


Smalley, W., Falck-Ytter, C., Carrasco-Labra, A., Wani, S., Lytvyn, L., Falck-Ytter, Y. (2019). AGA clinical practice guidelines on the laboratory evaluation of functional diarrhea and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in adults (IBS-D). Gastroenterology, 157(3), 851-854. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.07.004


Weinberg, D. S., Smalley, W., Heidelbaugh, J. J., & Sultan, S. (2014). American Gastroenterological Association Institute guideline on the pharmacological management of irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 147(5): 1146-1148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2014.09.001


Nausea and Vomiting


American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 189: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 131(1): e15-e30. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002456.


Anzemet. (2017). PDR. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Anzemet-Tablets-dolasetron-mesylate-506.8229


Brown, T. (2017). New guidelines on nausea, vomiting in pregnancy. Medscape. https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/890504


Consolini, D. M. (n.d.). Nausea and vomiting in infants and children. Merck Manual Online. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/symptoms-in-infants-and-children/nausea-and-vomiting-in-infants-and-children


Flake, Z., Linn, B., & Hornecker, J. (2015). Practical selection of antiemetics in the ambulatory setting. American Family Physician, 91(5):293-296. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0301/p293.html


Metoclopramide. (2020). PDR. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Reglan-Tablets-metoclopramide-956.5843#14


Ondansetron. (2020). PDR. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Ondansetron-ondansetron-hydrochloride-3428.2904#6


Promethazine hydrochloride. (2020). PDR. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Promethazine-Hydrochloride-Tablets-promethazine-hydrochloride-1288


Thorazine. (2020). PDR. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Chlorpromazine-Hydrochloride-Tablets-chlorpromazine-hydrochloride-693.423#5


Scopolamine. (2020). PDR. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Transderm-Scop-scopolamine-415#4


Schwartzberg, L.S. (2017). Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: strategies for prevention and treatment. Clinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology, 15 (12), 906-913.


Singh, P., Yoon, S. S., & Kuo, B. (2016). Nausea: a review of pathophysiology and therapeutics. Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, 9(1), 98-112. doi:10.1177/1756283X15618131


Russell, A. C., Stone, A. L., & Walker, L. S. (2016). Functional nausea in children: a review of the literature and need for diagnostic criteria. Children (Basel, Switzerland), 3(1), 5. doi:10.3390/children3010005


Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease


Chalasani N., Younossi, Z., Lavine, J. E., Charlton, M., Cusi, K., Rinella, M., Harrison, S. A., Brunt, E. M., Sanyal, A. J. (2018). The diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Practice guidance from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology, 67, 328-357. doi: 10.1002/hep.29367


Corrado, R. L., Torres, D. M., Harrison, S. A. (2014). Review of treatment options for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Medical Clinics of North America, 98(1), 55-72. Doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2013.09.001


Marzuillo, P., Grandone, A., Perrone, L., Miraglia Del Giudice, E. (2015). Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms in the pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: The role of genetics. World Journal of Hepatology, 7(11), 1439-1443. Doi: 10.4254/wjh.v7.i11.1439





Peptic Ulcer Disease


Chey, W.D., Leontiadis, G.I., Howden, C.W., Moss, S.F. (2017). ACG Clinical Guideline: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. American Journal of Gastroenterology 112:212. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2016.563


Fallone, C.A., Chiba, N., Van Zanteri, et al. (2016). The Toronto Consensus for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in adults. Gastroenterology 15:51. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.04.006


Fashner, J., Gitu, A. C. (2015). Diagnosis and treatment of peptic ulcer disease and H. pylori infection. American Family Physician, 91(4), 236-242.


Hollier, A. (Ed). (2018). Peptic ulcer disease. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Pinworm Infection


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Parasites-Enterobiasis: Resources for health professionals. https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/pinworm/health_professionals/index.html


Hamilton, R. J. (Ed.). (2020). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia. Jones and Bartlett Learning.


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Pinworm infection. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Khubchandani, I. T. & Bub, D. S. (2019). Parasitic infections. Clinics in Colon Rectal Surgery, 32(5), 364-371. doi:10.1055/s-0039-1687832


Wendt, S., Trawinski, H., Schubert, S., Rodloff, A. C., Mossner, J. & Lubbert, C. (2019). The diagnosis and treatment of pinworm infection. Deutsches Arzeblatt International, 116, 213-219.


Pyloric Stenosis


Burns, C. E., Brady, M., & Dunn, A., Starr, N.B., Blosser, C.G. (2016). Pediatric Primary Care: A handbook for nurse practitioners. W. B. Saunders.


Nazer, H. (2017). Pediatric hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/929829


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Pyloric stenosis. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Subramaniam, S. (2018). Pediatric pyloric stenosis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/803489


Recurrent Abdominal Pain: Adult


Hollier, A. (Ed.). Recurrent abdominal pain: Adult. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


International Foundation for Gastrointestinal Disorders. (2019). Functional abdominal pain syndrome. https://www.iffgd.org/lower-gi-disorders/functional-abdominal-pain-syndrome.html


Yarze, J. C. & Friedman, L. S. (2016). Chronic abdominal pain. In M. Feldman, L. S. Friedman, & L. J. Brandt (Eds.), Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. (10th ed.). Elsevier.


Ulcerative Colitis


Basson, M.D. (2017). Ulcerative colitis treatment & management. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/183084


Bressler, B., et al, for the Toronto Ulcerative Colitis Consensus Group. (2015). Clinical practice guidelines for the medical management of nonhospitalized ulcerative colitis: The Toronto Consensus. Gastroenterology 148(5): 1035-1058.e3. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.03.00


Kornbluth, A., Sachar, D. B. (2010). Ulcerative colitis practice guidelines in adults: American College of Gastroenterology Practice Parameters Committee. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 105(3), 501-523. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2009.727


Osterman, M. T., Lichtenstein, G. R. (2016). Ulcerative colitis. In M. Feldman, L.S. Friedman, & L.J. Brandt (Eds.) Sleisenger and Fordtran’s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, 2023-2061. Elsevier Saunders.




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