Men's Health Disorders

miology, 21(6), 779-785.

Kolon, T. F., Herndon, C. A., Baker, L. A., et al. (2014). Evaluation and treatment of cryptorchidism: AUA guideline. The Journal of Urology, 192(2), 337-345.

Lee, P. A., & Houk, C. P. (2013). Cryptorchidism. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, 20(3), 210-216.

Penson, D.F., Krishnaswami, S., Jules, A., et al. (2012). Evaluation and treatment of cryptorchidism: Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 88. AHRQ Publication No. 13-EHC001-EF. Retrieved Feb. 24, 2018, from:

Philippat, C., Giorgis-Allemand, L., Chevrier, C., Cordier, S., Jégou, B., Charles, M. A., & Slama, R. (2011). Analgesics during pregnancy and undescended testis. Epidemiology, 22(5), 747-749.

Tasian, G. E., & Copp, H. L. (2011). Diagnostic performance of ultrasound in nonpalpable cryptorchidism: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 127(1), 119-128.

Tekgül S, Riedmiller E, Gerharz P, et al. (2011). Cryptorchidism. In: European Society for Paediatric Urology. Guidelines on Paediatric Urology, p. 8.

Virtanen, H. E., & Adamsson, A. (2012). Cryptorchidism and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 355(2), 208-220.


Adefurin, A., Sammons, H., Jacqz-Aigrain, E., & Choonara, I. (2011). Ciprofloxacin safety in paediatrics: a systematic review. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 96(9), 874-880.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015). Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recommendations and Reports 64(No. RR-3):1-137.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007). Updated recommended treatment regimens for gonococcal infections and associated conditions -- United States, April 2007. Retrieved March 10, 2018, from:

Crawford, P., & Crop, J. A. (2014). Evaluation of scrotal masses. American Family Physician, 89(9).

DiMare, M. (2017). Acute epididymitis. Medscape. Retrieved March 10, 2018, from:

McConaghy, J.R., Panchal, B. (2016). Epididymitis: An Overview. American Family Physician. 4(9):723-726.

Remer, E.M., Casalino, D.D., Arellano, R.S., et al. (2012). ACR appropriateness criteria: acute onset of scrotal pain—without trauma, without antecedent mass. Ultrasound Quarterly, 28, 47-51.

Shah, J., Qureshi, I., & Ellis, B. W. (2004). Acute idiopathic scrotal oedema in an adult: A case report. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 58(12), 1168-1169.

Street, E., Joyce, A., Wilson, J., & Radcliffe, K. 2010 United Kingdom national guideline for the management of epididymo-orchitis.

Erectile Dysfunction

Araujo, A.B., Esche, G.R., Kupelian, V., et al. (2007). Prevalence of symptomatic androgen deficiency in men. Journal Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 92, 4241.

Araujo, A. B., Mohr, B. A., & McKinlay, J. B. (2004). Changes in sexual function in middle‐aged and older men: Longitudinal data from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52(9), 1502-1509.

Bacon, C. G., Mittleman, M. A., Kawachi, I., Giovannucci, E., Glasser, D. B., & Rimm, E. B. (2003). Sexual function in men older than 50 years of age: Results from the health professionals’ follow-up study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 139(3), 161-168.

Bhasin, S., Cunningham, G. R., Hayes, F. J., Matsumoto, A. M., Snyder, P. J., Swerdloff, R. S., & Montori, V. M. (2010). Testosterone therapy in men with androgen deficiency syndromes: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 95(6), 2536-2559.

Danesh-Meyer, H. V., & Levin, L. A. (2007). Erectile dysfunction drugs and risk of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: Casual or causal association? British Journal of Ophthalmology, 91(11), 1551-1555.

Earle, C. M., & Stuckey, B. G. (2003). Biochemical screening in the assessment of erectile dysfunction: What tests decide future therapy? Urology, 62(4), 727-731.

Grant, P., Jackson, G., Baig, I., Quin, J. (2013). Erectile dysfunction in general medicine. Clinical Medicine, 13, 136.

Hatzichristou, D. G., & Pescatori, E. S. (2001). Current treatments and emerging therapeutic approaches in male erectile dysfunction. BJU International, 88(s3), 11-17.

Hatzimouratidis, K., Amar, E., Eardley, I., Giuliano, F., Hatzichristou, D., Montorsi, F., & Wespes, E. (2010). Guidelines on male sexual dysfunction: erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. European Urology, 57(5), 804-814.

Laties, A. M. (2009). Vision disorders and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Drug safety, 32(1), 1-18.

Melnik, T., Soares, B.G., Nasselo, A.G. (2007). Psychosocial interventions for erectile dysfunction. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, (3) CD004825.

Montague, D., Broderick, G., & Et al. (2016). Erectile Dysfunction: American Urological Association. Retrieved March 10, 2018, from:

National Institutes of Health (1993). Impotence: NIH consensus development panel on impotence. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270, 83-90.

Rosen, R. C., Cappelleri, J. C., Smith, M. D., Lipsky, J., & Pena, B. M. (1999). Development and evaluation of an abridged, 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) as a diagnostic tool for erectile dysfunction. International Journal of Impotence Research, 11(6), 319-326.

Rosen, R. C., Riley, A., Wagner, G., Osterloh, I. H., Kirkpatrick, J., & Mishra, A. (1997). The international index of erectile function (IIEF): A multidimensional scale for assessment of erectile dysfunction. Urology, 49(6), 822-830.

Sadovsky, R., Brock, G. B., Gray, M., Jensen, P. K., Gutkin, S. W., & Sorsaburu, S. (2011). Optimizing treatment outcomes with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction: Opening windows to enhanced sexual function and overall health. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 23(6), 320-330.

Selvin, E., Burnett, A. L., & Platz, E. A. (2007). Prevalence and risk factors for erectile dysfunction in the US. The American Journal of Medicine, 120(2), 151-157.

Shamloul, R., Ghanem, H. (2013). Erectile dysfunction. Lancet, 381,153.

Wessells, H., Joyce, G.F., Wise, M., et al. (2007). Erectile dysfunction. Journal of Urology, 177, 1675-1681


Barthold, J.S., Kass, E.J. (2002). Abnormalities of the penis and scrotum. In: Belman, A.B., King, L.R., Kramer, S.A., (eds.). Guide to Clinical Pediatric Urology. London, 267-298.

Cimador, M., Castagnetti, M., & De Grazia, E. (2010). Management of hydrocele in adolescent patients. Nature Reviews Urology, 7(7), 379-385.

Dogra, V.S., Gottlieb, R.H., Oka, M., et al. (2003). Sonography of the scrotum. Radiology, 227, 18-36.

Kogan, B. A. (2007). Communicating hydrocele/hernia repair in children. BJU international, 100(3), 703-714.

Sandlow, J. I., Winfield, H. N., & Goldstein, M. (2007). Surgery of the scrotum and seminal vesicles. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier.

Schneck, F. X., & Bellinger, M. F. (2007). Abnormalities of the testes and scrotum and their surgical management. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier.

Tekgül, S., Dogan, H.S., Hoebeke, P., et al (2014). European Association of Urology. Guidelines on pediatric urology. Retrieved March 10, 2018, from:


Baskin, L. S., Erol, A., Jegatheesan, P., Li, Y., Liu, W., & Cunha, G. R. (2001). Urethral seam formation and hypospadias. Cell and Tissue Research, 305(3), 379-387.

Baskin, L. S., & Ebbers, M. B. (2006). Hypospadias: anatomy, etiology, and technique. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 41(3), 463-472.

Baskin, L. S., Himes, K., & Colborn, T. (2001). Hypospadias and endocrine disruption: Is there a connection? Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11), 1175.

Brouwers, M. M., Feitz, W. F., Roelofs, L. A., Kiemeney, L. A., de Gier, R. P., & Roeleveld, N. (2007). Risk factors for hypospadias. European Journal of Pediatrics, 166(7), 671–678.

Carlson, W. H., Kisely, S. R., & MacLellan, D. L. (2009). Maternal and fetal risk factors associated with severity of hypospadias: a comparison of mild and severe cases. Journal of Pediatric Urology, 5(4), 283-286.

Carmichael, S. L., Yang, W., Roberts, E. M., Kegley, S. E., Wolff, C., Guo, L., & Shaw, G. M. (2013). Hypospadias and residential proximity to pesticide applications. Pediatrics.

Geller, F., Feenstra, B., Carstensen, L., Pers, T. H., van Rooij, I. A., Körberg, I. B., & Feitz, W. F. (2014). Genome-wide association analyses identify variants in developmental genes associated with hypospadias. Nature genetics, 46(9), 957-963.

Holmes, N. M., Miller, W. L., & Baskin, L. S. (2004). Lack of defects in androgen production in children with hypospadias. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(6), 2811-2816.

Kass, E., Kogan, S. J., Manley, C., Wacksman, J. A., Klykylo, W. M., Meza, A., & Wiener, E. (1996). Timing of elective surgery on the genitalia of male children with particular reference to the risks, benefits, and psychological effects of surgery and anesthesia. Pediatrics, 97(4), 590-594.

Qiao, L., Tasian, G. E., Zhang, H., Cao, M., Ferretti, M., Cunha, G. R., & Baskin, L. S. (2012). Androgen receptor is overexpressed in boys with severe hypospadias, and ZEB1 regulates androgen receptor expression in human foreskin cells. Pediatric Research, 71(4-1), 393-398.

Schönbucher, V. B., Landolt, M. A., Gobet, R., & Weber, D. M. (2008). Psychosexual development of children and adolescents with hypospadias. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5(6), 1365-1373.

Porter, M. P., Faizan, M. K., Grady, R. W., & Mueller, B. A. (2005). Hypospadias in Washington State: maternal risk factors and prevalence trends. Pediatrics, 115(4), e495-e499.

Sekaran, P., O'Toole, S., Flett, M., & Cascio, S. (2013). Increased occurrence of disorders of sex development, prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction in children with proximal hypospadias associated with undescended testes. The Journal of Urology, 189(5), 1892-1896.

Tasian, G. E., Zaid, H., Cabana, M. D., & Baskin, L. S. (2010). Proximal hypospadias and risk of acquired cryptorchidism. The Journal of Urology, 184(2), 715-720.

Wilcox, D.T., De Mouriquand, P., (2008). Essentials of Paediatric Urology, Second Edition, 213-231


Buechner, S. A. (2002). Common skin disorders of the penis. BJU International, 90(5), 498-506.

Burns, C., Dunn, A., Brady, M., & Barbaer-Starr, N. (2012). Pediatric Primary Care (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

Drake, T., Rustom, J., & Davies, M. (2013). Phimosis in childhood. BMJ, 346, f3678.

McAnich, J.W. (2012). Disorders of the penis and male urethra. In McAninch J.U., Lue, T.F., editors: Smith and Tanagho’s General Urology, ed. 19, Norwalk, CT, 2012, McGraw-Hill Lange.

McCance, K., & Huether, S. (2014). Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children (7th edition pp. 888-889). St. Louis, MO.

Moreno, G., Corbalán, J., Peñaloza, B., & Pantoja, T. (2014). Topical corticosteroids for treating phimosis in boys. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (9):CD008973. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008973.pub2.

Pulsifer, A. (2005). Pediatric genitourinary examination: a clinician's reference. Urologic Nursing, 25(3), 163-169.

Shahid, S. K. (2012). Phimosis in children. ISRN Urology. Doi: 10.5402/2012/707329.

Sookpotarom, P., Asawutmangkul, C., Srinithiwat, B., Leethochawalit, S., & Vejchapipat, P. (2013). Is half strength of 0.05 % betamethasone valerate cream still effective in the treatment of phimosis in young children? Pediatric Surgery International, 29(4), 393-396. Doi: 10.1007/s00383-012-3253-9

University of California, San Francisco Department of Urology (2013). Phimosis: What is phimosis? Retrieved March 10, 2018, from:

Prostate Cancer

Alemozaffar, M., Regan, M. M., Cooperberg, M. R., Wei, J. T., Michalski, J. M., Sandler, H. M., & Klein, E. (2011). Prediction of erectile function following treatment for prostate cancer. JAMA, 306(11), 1205-1214.

American Urological Association (2015). Early detection of prostate cancer: AUA guideline. Retrieved March 10, 2018, from:

American Urological Association. (2000). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) best practice policy. Oncology, 14(2), 267-86.

Bahn, Duke K., et al. (2002). Targeted cryoablation of the prostate: 7-year outcomes in the primary treatment of prostate cancer. Urology 60(2), 3-11.

Brooks, D. D., Wolf, A. M., Dash, C., & Guessous, I. (2010). Prostate cancer screening 2010: updated recommendations from the American Cancer Society. Journal of the National Medical Association, 102(5), 423.

Carlsson, S., Sandin, F., Fall, K., Lambe, M., Adolfsson, J., Stattin, P., & Bill-Axelson, A. (2013). Risk of suicide in men with low-risk prostate cancer. European Journal of Cancer, 49(7), 1588-1599.

Cresswell, J., Asterling, S., Chaudhary, M., Sheikh, N., & Greene, D. (2006). Third‐generation cryotherapy for prostate cancer in the UK: A prospective study of the early outcomes in primary and recurrent disease. BJU international, 97(5), 969-974.

D'Amico, A. V., Manola, J., Loffredo, M., Renshaw, A. A., DellaCroce, A., & Kantoff, P. W. (2004). 6-month androgen suppression plus radiation therapy vs radiation therapy alone for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 292(7), 821-827.

Eggener, S., Salomon, G., Scardino, P. T., De la Rosette, J., Polascik, T. J., & Brewster, S. (2010). Focal therapy for prostate cancer: possibilities and limitations. European Urology, 58(1), 57-64.

Ferrer, M., Suárez, J. F., Guedea, F., Fernández, P., Macías, V., Mariño, A., & Craven-Bratle, J. (2008). Health-related quality of life 2 years after treatment with radical prostatectomy, prostate brachytherapy, or external beam radiotherapy in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, 72(2), 421-432.

Fizazi, K., Lesaunier, F., Delva, R., et al. (2012). A phase III trial of docetaxel-estramustine in high-risk localized prostate cancer: A planned analysis of response, toxicity and quality of life in the GETUG 12 trial. Eur J Cancer, (48), 209-217

Fleshner, N. E., Lucia, M. S., Egerdie, B., Aaron, L., Eure, G., Nandy, I., & Rittmaster, R. S. (2012). Dutasteride in localised prostate cancer management: The REDEEM randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet, 379(9821), 1103-1111.

Hamdy, F. C., Donovan, J. L., Lane, J. A., Mason, M., Metcalfe, C., Holding, P., & Oxley, J. (2016). 10-year outcomes after monitoring, surgery, or radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 375(15), 1415-1424.

Lee, H. M., Hong, J. H., & Choi, H. Y. (2006). High-intensity focused ultrasound therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, 9(4), 439-443.

Leyten, G. H., Hessels, D., Jannink, S. A., et al. (2014). Prospective multicentre evaluation of PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions as diagnostic and prognostic urinary biomarkers for prostate cancer. European Urology, 65(3), 534-542.

Loch, T. (2011). Prostate cancer diagnostics: innovative imaging in case of multiple negative biopsies. World Journal of Urology, 29(5), 607-614.

Lughezzani, G., Lazzeri, M., Haese, A., McNicholas, T., de la Taille, A., Buffi, N. M., & Mistretta, A. (2014). Multicenter European external validation of a Prostate Health Index–based nomogram for predicting prostate cancer at extended biopsy. European Urology, 66(5), 906-912.

Michaelson, M. D., Cotter, S. E., Gargollo, P. C., Zietman, A. L., Dahl, D. M., & Smith, M. R. (2008). Management of complications of prostate cancer treatment. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 58(4), 196-213.

Roach, M. 3, DeSilvio, M., Lawton, C., Uhl, V., Machtay, M., Seider, M. J., & Han, S. (2003). Phase III trial comparing whole-pelvic versus prostate-only radiotherapy and neoadjuvant versus adjuvant combined androgen suppression: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9413. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 21(10), 1904-1911.

Rhoden, E. L., Averbeck, M. A., & Teloken, P. E. (2008). Androgen replacement in men undergoing treatment for prostate cancer. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5(9), 2202-2208.

Schulman, C.C., Irani, J., Morote, J., et al. (2010). Testosterone measurement in patients with prostate cancer. European Journal of Urology, (58), 65-74.

Sengupta, S., Myers, R. P., Slezak, J. M., Bergstralh, E. J., Zincke, H., & Blute, M. L. (2005). Preoperative prostate specific antigen doubling time and velocity are strong and independent predictors of outcomes following radical prostatectomy. The Journal of Urology, 174(6), 2191-2196.

Siegel, R., Naishadham, D., & Jemal, A. (2013). Cancer statistics, 2013. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 63(1), 11-30.

Shelley, M., Wilt, T.J., Coles, B., et al. (2007) Cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3), CD005010.

Skolarus, T. A., Wolf, A., Erb, N. L., Brooks, D. D., Rivers, B. M., Underwood, W., & Wittmann, D. A. (2014). American Cancer Society prostate cancer survivorship care guidelines. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 64(4), 225-249.

Syndikus, I., Morgan, R. C., Sydes, M. R., Graham, J. D., & Dearnaley, D. P. (2010). Late gastrointestinal toxicity after dose-escalated conformal radiotherapy for early prostate cancer: results from the UK Medical Research Council RT01 trial (ISRCTN47772397). International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, 77(3), 773-783.

Uchida, T., Ohkusa, H., Yamashita, H., Shoji, S., Nagata, Y., Hyodo, T., & Satoh, T. (2006). Five years experience of transrectal high‐intensity focused ultrasound using the Sonablate device in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. International Journal of Urology, 13(3), 228-233.

Wolf, A., Wender, R. C., Etzioni, R. B., Thompson, I. M., D'Amico, A. V., Volk, R. J., & DeSantis, C. (2010). American Cancer Society guideline for the early detection of prostate cancer: update 2010. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 60(2), 70-98.


Burns, C., Dunn, A., Brady, M., & Barbaer-Starr, N. (2012). Pediatric Primary Care (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

Holdstock, R. (2010). Testicular cancer. Practice Nurse, 40(1), 26-29.

Kenny, D., Batra, K., Nancy, M., & Chhabra, A. (2008). Radiological case. Tubular ectasia of rete testis with spermatocele. Applied Radiology, 37(9), 38-39.

McCance, K., & Huether, S. (2014). Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children (7th ed., pp. 888-889). St. Louis, MO.

Mullen, B. A. (2004). Testicular complaints and the young man. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 16(11), 490-495.

Pais, V. (2017). Spermatocele. Medscape. Retrieved March 11, 2018, from:

Rubenstein, R. A., Dogra, V. S., Seftel, A. D., & Resnick, M. I. (2004). Benign intrascrotal lesions. The Journal of Urology, 171(5), 1765-1772.

Waxman, S., Lewis, P., & Soderdahl, D. (2009). Scrotal pathology in the outpatient setting in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Military Medicine, 174(5), 539-541.

Testicular Cancer

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2018, from:

Dong, C., Lönnstedt, I., & Hemminki, K. (2001). Familial testicular cancer and second primary cancers in testicular cancer patients by histological type. European Journal of Cancer, 37(15), 1878-1885.

Duffy, M. J., Lamerz, R., Haglund, C., Nicolini, A., Kalousová, M., Holubec, L., & Sturgeon, C. (2014). Tumor markers in colorectal cancer, gastric cancer and gastrointestinal stromal cancers: European group on tumor markers 2014 guidelines update. International Journal of Cancer, 134(11), 2513-2522.

Fossa, S. D., Chen, J., Schonfeld, S. J., McGlynn, K. A., McMaster, M. L., Gail, M. H., & Travis, L. B. (2005). Risk of contralateral testicular cancer: a population-based study of 29 515 US men. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 97(14), 1056-1066.

Ilic, D., Misso, M.L. (2011). Screening for testicular cancer. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, (2), CD007853.

Mazumdar, M., Bajorin, D. F., Bacik, J., Higgins, G., Motzer, R. J., & Bosl, G. J. (2001). Predicting outcome to chemotherapy in patients with germ cell tumors: the value of the rate of decline of human chorionic gonadotrophin and alpha-fetoprotein during therapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 19(9), 2534-2541.

McGlynn, K.A., Devesa, S.S., Graubard, B.I., et al. (2005). Increasing incidence of testicular germ cell tumors among black men in the United States. J Clin Oncol, 23, 5757-5761.

Mostofi, F. K., & Sesterhenn, I. A. (2012). Histological Typing Of Testis Tumours. Springer Science & Business Media.

Oosting, S. F., de Haas, E. C., Links, T. P., de Bruin, D., Sluiter, W. J., de Jong, I. J., & Gietema, J. A. (2010). Prevalence of paraneoplastic hyperthyroidism in patients with metastatic non-seminomatous germ-cell tumors. Annals of Oncology, 21(1), 104-108.

Pettersson, A., Richiardi, L., Nordenskjold, A., Kaijser, M., & Akre, O. (2007). Age at surgery for undescended testis and risk of testicular cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 356(18), 1835-1841.

Reuter, V. E. (2005). Origins and molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors. Modern Pathology, 18, S51-S60.

Richiardi, L., Akre, O., Montgomery, S. M., Lambe, M., Kvist, U., & Ekbom, A. (2004). Fecundity and twinning rates as measures of fertility before diagnosis of germ-cell testicular cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 96(2), 145-147.

Sachdeva, K. (2017). Testicular Cancer. Medscape. Retrieved March 11, 2018, from:

Strohsnitter, W. C., Noller, K. L., Hoover, R. N., Robboy, S. J., Palmer, J. R., Titus-Ernstoff, L., & Hatch, E. E. (2001). Cancer risk in men exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 93(7), 545-551.

Testicular Torsion

Baker, L. A., Sigman, D., Mathews, R. I., Benson, J., & Docimo, S. G. (2000). An analysis of clinical outcomes using color Doppler testicular ultrasound for testicular torsion. Pediatrics, 105(3), 604-607.

Barbosa, J. A., Tiseo, B. C., Barayan, G. A., Rosman, B. M., Torricelli, F. C. M., Passerotti, C. C., & Nguyen, H. T. (2013). Development and initial validation of a scoring system to diagnose testicular torsion in children. The Journal of Urology, 189(5), 1859-1864.

Blaivas, M., Brannam, L. (2004). Testicular ultrasound. Emergency Medical Clinics of North America, 22, 723-748.

Cimador, M., DiPace, M. R., Castagnetti, M., & DeGrazia, E. (2007). Predictors of testicular viability in testicular torsion. Journal of Pediatric Urology, 3(5), 387-390.

Huang, C. C., & Wen, Y. S. (2007). Idiopathic testicular infarction initially masquerading as urolithiasis and epididymitis. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 25(6), 736-e1.

Kapoor, S. (2008). Testicular torsion: a race against time. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 62(5), 821-827.

Lam, W. W. C., Yap, T. L., Jacobsen, A. S., & Teo, H. J. E. L. (2005). Colour Doppler ultrasonography replacing surgical exploration for acute scrotum: myth or reality? Pediatric Radiology, 35(6), 597-600.

Leslie, J. A., & Cain, M. P. (2006). Pediatric urologic emergencies and urgencies. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 53(3), 513-527.

Marcozzi, D., & Suner, S. (2001). The nontraumatic, acute scrotum. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America, 19(3), 547-568.

Oreoluwa, O. (2017). Testicular torsion clinical presentation. Medscape. Retrieved March 11, 2018, from:

Pentyala, S., Lee, J., Yalamanchili, P., Vitkun, S., & Khan, S. A. (2001). Testicular torsion: a review. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 5(1), 38-47.

Ringdahl, E., Teague, L. (2006). Testicular torsion. Am Family Physician, (74), 1739-1743.

Seng, Y. J., & Moissinac, K. (2000). Trauma induced testicular torsion: a reminder for the unwary. Journal of Accident & Emergency Medicine, 17(5), 381-382.

Srinivasan, A., Cinman, N., Feber, K. M., Gitlin, J., & Palmer, L. S. (2011). History and physical examination findings predictive of testicular torsion: an attempt to promote clinical diagnosis by house staff. Journal of Pediatric Urology, 7(4), 470-474.

Taskinen, S., Taskinen, M., & Rintala, R. (2008). Testicular torsion: orchiectomy or orchiopexy? Journal of Pediatric Urology, 4(3), 210-213.

Turgut, A.T., Bhatt, S., Dogra, V.S. (2008). Acute painful scrotum. Ultrasound Clin, (3), 93-107.


Agarwal, A., Deepinder, F., Cocuzza, M., Agarwal, R., Short, R. A., Sabanegh, E., & Marmar, J. L. (2007). Efficacy of varicocelectomy in improving semen parameters: new meta-analytical approach. Urology, 70(3), 532-538.

Baazeem, A., Belzile, E., Ciampi, A., Dohle, G., Jarvi, K., Salonia, A., & Zini, A. (2011). Varicocele and male factor infertility treatment: a new meta-analysis and review of the role of varicocele repair. European Urology, 60(4), 796-808.

Evers, J.L., Collins, J.A., Vandekerckhove, P. (2001). Surgery or embolization for varicocele in subfertile men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

Gorelick, J. I., & Goldstein, M. (1993). Loss of fertility in men with varicocele. Fertility and Sterility, 59(3), 613-616.

Hadziselimovic, F., Herzog, B., & Jenny, P. (1995). The chance for fertility in adolescent boys after corrective surgery for varicocele. The Journal of Urology, 154(2), 731-733.

Kroese, A. C., de Lange, N. M., Collins, J., & Evers, J. L. (2012). Surgery or embolization for varicoceles in subfertile men. The Cochrane Library. 10.1002/14651858.CD000479.pub5

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