Orthopedic Disorders

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury


American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. (2018). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care (5th ed.). Jones & Barlett.


Kaeding, C. C., Leger-St-Jean, B., & Magnussen, R. A. (2017). Epidemiology and diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 36(1), 1-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.csm.2016.08.001


Miller, M. D., & Thompson, S. R. (2019). DeLee & Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. (5th ed.) Elsevier Health Sciences.


Musahl, V., & Karlsson, J. (2019). Anterior cruciate ligament tear. New England Journal of Medicine, 380(24), 2341-2348. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMcp1805931


Parks, E. (2017). Practical Office Orthopedics. McGraw-Hill Education.


Skinner, H. B. (Ed.). (2013). Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Orthopedics. (5th ed.) The McGraw-Hill Companies.


Bakerʼs Cyst


Bonatti, M., Lombardo, F., Schifferle, G., Stuefer, J., Zamboni, G., & Bonatti, G. (2017). Cystic lesions around the knee: beyond Baker’s cyst. European Congress of Radiology 2017. doi.org/10.1594/ecr2017/C-0604


Blome, A., Harrigan, R., Goett, H., Costantino, T., & Gibbons, R. (2017). Ultrasonographic characteristics of Baker's cysts: the sonographic Foucher's sign. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 53(5), 753-755. doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2017.08.029


Crenshaw, A. (2017). Soft tissue procedures and corrective osteotomies about the knee. F. Azar, J. Beaty & S.T. Canale (Eds.) Campbell’s Operative Orthopedics. (13th ed.) Elsevier.


Domino, F. (2020). 5-Minute Clinical Consult 2020. Wolters Kluwer.


Frush, T. & Noyes, F. (2015). Baker’s cyst. Sports Health, 7(4), 359-365. doi: 10.1177/1941738113520130.


Herman, A. & Marzo, J. (2014). Popliteal cysts: a current review. Orthopedics, 37(8), e678-84. doi: 10.3928/01477447-20140728-52

Lata, S., Garg, P., Chauhan, S., Saxena, D., & Gupta, S. (2015). Baker’s cyst in popliteal region: a case report. International Journal of Medical Research Professionals, 1(1), 44-46.


O'Keefe, K. P. & Sanson, T. G. (2016). Hip and knee pain. In: Tintinalli, J. E., Stapczynski, J., Ma, O., Yealy, D. M., Meckler, G. D., Cline, D. M. (Eds.). Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill.


Park, G. Y., Kwon, D. R., & Kwon, D. G. (2020). Clinical, radiographic, and ultrasound findings between simple and complicated Baker’s cysts. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 99(1), 7-12 doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000001263


Rosenberg, D. & Amadera, J. (2015). Baker cyst. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. (3rd ed.). pp 331-334. W. B. Saunders.


Bursitis


Armstrong, A. D. & Hubbard, M. C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care. (5th ed.). American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.


Blackwell, J. R., Hay, B. A., Bolt, A. M., & Hay, S. M. (2014). Olecranon bursitis: a systematic overview. Shoulder and Elbow 6(3). 182-190. https://doi.org/10.1177/1758573214532787


Brock, G. & Gurekas, V. (2014). The occasional pes anserinus bursitis injection. Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine. 19(2):71-73.


Hubbard, M. J., Hildebrand, B. A., Battafarano, M. M., & Battafarano, D. F. (2018). Common soft tissue musculoskeletal pain disorders. Primary Care, 45(2), 289-303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pop.2018.02.006


Jain, A. (2016). Turek's Orthopaedics: Principles and Their Applications (7th ed., Vol. 2). Wolters Kluwer Health.


Khodaee, M. (2017). Common superficial bursitis. American Family Physician, 95(4), 224-231.


McMahon, P. J., Kaplan, L. D., & Popkin, C. A. (2014). Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Orthopedics. (5th ed.). McGraw-Hill Companies.


Miller, M. D., & Thompson, S. R. (2020). DeLee & Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine (5th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences.


Parks, E. (2017). Practical Office Orthopedics. McGraw-Hill Education.


Clavicular Fracture


Cisneros, L., & Reiriz, J., (2015). Arthroscopic-assisted management of unstable distal-third clavicle fractures: conoid ligament reconstruction and fracture cerclage with sutures. Arthroscopy Techniques, 4(6), e655-661. doi:10.1016/j.eats.2015.07.010


Coppa, V., Dei Giudici, L., Cecconi, S., Marinelli, M., & Gigante, A. (2017). Midshaft clavicle fractures treatment: threaded Kirschner wire versus conservative approach. Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction, 12(3), 141-150. doi:10.1007/s11751-017-0293-7


Kleinhenz, B. (2019). Clavicle fractures. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/92429-overview


McKerrow, M., & North, J. (2017). Clavicle fracture management: a comparison of a tertiary hospital and rural telehealth sites. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 23(10), 856-860. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633X17733503


DeQuervainʼs Tenosynovitis


Ashraf, M., & Devadoss, V. G. (2014). Systematic review and meta-analysis on steroid injection therapy for De Quervain’s tenosynovitis in adults. European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology, 24(2), 149-157. doi.org/10.1007/s00590-012-1164-z


Goroll, A. H., & Mulley, A. G., Jr. (2014). Primary Care Medicine: Office Evaluation and Management of the Adult Patient (6th ed.) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Meals, R. A. (2020). De Quervain tenosynovitis. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1243387-overview


Developmental Dysplasia Of The Hip


Ferri, F. (2020). Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2020. Elsevier.


Hay, W. W., Levin, M. J., Deterding, R. R. & Abzug, M. J. (2018). Current Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics. (24th ed.). McGraw Hill Education Lange.


Maaks, D., Starr, N., Brady, M., Driessaack, M., Gaylord, N., & Duterstadt, K. (2019). Burns’ Pediatric Primary Care. (7th ed.) Elsevier.


Mulpuri, K., Song, K. M., Goldberg, M. J., Sevarino, K. (2015). Detection and nonoperative management of pediatric developmental dysplasia of the hips in infants up to 6 months of age. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 23(3), 202-205. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-15-00006.


Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020) Evidence based resource summary. Hip dysplasia screening summary. Healthy People 2020. https://healthypeople.gov/2020/tools-resources/evidence-based-resource/hip-dysplasia-screening-in-infants.


Richardson, B. (2020). Pediatric Primary Care. Practice Guidelines for Nurses. (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.


Shaw, B & Segal, L. (2016). Evaluation and referral for developmental dysplasia of the hips in infants. Pediatrics, 138 (6) e20163107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-3107


Tamai, J. (2020). Developmental dysplasia of the hip. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1248135-overview


Epicondylitis


Armstrong, A. D. & Hubbard, M. C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care. (5th ed.). American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.


Kane, S. F., Lynch, J. H. & Taylor, J. C. (2014). Evaluation of elbow pain in adults. American Family Physician. 89(8):649-57.


Miller, M. D., & Thompson, S. R. (2020). DeLee & Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. (5th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences.


Parks, E. (2017). Practical Office Orthopedics. McGraw-Hill Education.


Rodriguez, J. A. (2014). Corticosteroid versus platelet-rich plasma injection in epicondylitis. Orthopaedic Nursing, 33(5), 257-265. DOI: 10.1097/NOR.0000000000000081


Fibromyalgia


Arnold, L. M., Bennett, R. M., Crofford L. J., Dean, L., Clauw, D., Goldenberg, D., Fitzcharles, M., Macfarlane, G. (2019). AAPT Diagnostic Criteria for Fibromyalgia. Journal of Pain, 20(6), 611-628. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2018.10.008


Arnold, L., Choy, E., Clauw, D. J., Goldenberg, D. L., Harris, R. E., Helfenstein, M., Jensen, T. S., Noguchi, K., Silverman, S. L., Ushida, T., Wang, G. (2016). Fibromyalgia and chronic pain syndromes: a white paper detailing current challenges in the field. Clinical Journal of Pain, 32(9), 797-746, doi: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000354


Fosam, H. (2016). Classifying chronic pain using American Pain Society’s taxonomy. Clinical Pain Advisor. https://www.clinicalpainadvisor.com/home/topics/chronic-pain/classifying-chronic-pain-using-the-american-pain-societys-taxonomy/


Jahan, F., Nanji, K., Qidwai, W., Qasim, R. (2012). Fibromyalgia syndrome: an overview of pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. OMAN Medical Journal, 27(3), 192-195, doi: 10.5001/omj.2012.44


Kreitzer, M. J., & Koithan, M. (Eds.). (2014). Integrative nursing management of pain. In Integrative Nursing (pp. 286-299). Oxford University Press.


Schaefer, C., Mann, R., Masters, E. T., Cappelleri, J. C., Daniel, S. R., Zlateva, G., McElroy, H. J., Chandran A. B., Adams, E. H., Assaf, A. R., McNett, M., Mease, P., Silverman, S., Staud, R. (2015). The comparative burden of chronic widespread pain and fibromyalgia in the United States. World Institute of Pain 16(5), 565-579. DOI. 10.1111/papr.12302


Stewart, J. A., Mailler-Burch, S., Müller, D., Studer, M., von Känel, R., Grosse Holtforth, M., … Egloff, N. (2019). Rethinking the criteria for fibromyalgia in 2019: the ABC indicators. Journal of Pain Research, 12, 2115-2124. doi:10.2147/JPR.S205299


Fractures


Buckley, R. (2020). General principles of fracture care. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1270717-overview#a9


Eiff, P., & Hatch, R. (2011). Fracture Management for Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Elsevier Saunders.


Martinez, J. (2020). Stress Fractures. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1270244-overview#a1


Norwell, J. (2014). Tibia and fibula fracture medication in the ED. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/826304-overview


Romeo, N. (2018). Femur injuries and fractures. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/90779-overview



Gamekeeperʼs Thumb


Brotzman, S., & Novotny, S. (2017). Injuries to the ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb metacarpophalangeal joint (gamekeeper’s thumb). In: Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: A Team Approach. (4th ed). Elsevier.


Chen-Yu, H., Varacallo, M., Chang, K-V. (2020). Gamekeepers Thumb (Skiers, Ulnar Collateral Ligament Tear). StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499971/


Lotke, P., Abboud, J., and Ende, J. (2014). Lippincott’s Primary Care Orthopaedics. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Schaider, J., Barkin, R., Hayden, S., Wolfe, R., Barkin, A., Shayne, P., Rosen, P. (2015). Rosen and Barkin’s 5-Minute Emergency Medicine Consult. Wolter Kluwer Health.


Schroeder, N. & Goldfarb, C. (2015). Thumb ulnar collateral and radial collateral ligament injuries. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 34(1), 117-126.


Skinner, H & McMahon, P. (2014). Current Diagnosis and Treatment in Orthopedics. (5th ed.) McGraw-Hill Education.


Gout


Armstrong, A.D. & Hubbard, M. C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care (5th Ed.). American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.


Choi, H. K., Niu, J., Neogi, T., Chen, C. A., Chaisson, C., Hunter, D. & Zhang, Y. (2015). Nocturnal risk of gout attacks. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 67(2):555-62.


Crum-Cianflone, N. F. (2014). Joint pain and swelling. American Family Physician. 89(5):381-2.


Davies, K., & Bukhari, M. A. S. (2018). Recent pharmacological advances in the management of gout. Rheumatology, 57(6), 951-958.


FitzGerald, J. D., Dalbeth, N., Mikuls, T., Brignardello-Petersen, R., Guyatt, G., … Neogi, T. (2020). 2020 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the management of gout. Arthritis Care & Research 72(6), 744-760. DOI 10.1002/acr.24180


Mirmiran, R., Bush, T., Cerra, M. M., Grambart, S., Kauschinger, E., Younger, M., & Zychowicz, M. (2018). Joint Clinical Consensus Statement of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons and the American Association of Nurse Practitioners: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment Consensus for Gouty Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 14(10), 765-769.


Noss, M. R., & Saguil, A. (2017). Gout: diagnosis and management. American Family Physician, 96(10), 668-670. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1115/p668.pdf


Qaseem, A., Harris, R. P., & Forciea, M. A. (2017). Management of acute and recurrent gout: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 166(1), 58-68. doi: 10.7326/M16-0570


Hammertoe Deformity


American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. (2020). Hammertoe. https://www.acfas.org/footankleinfo/hammertoes.htm


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Hammertoe deformity. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Malhotra, K., Davda, K., and Singh, D. (2017). The pathology and management of lesser toe deformities. EFFORT Open Reviews, 1(11),409-419. doi.org/10.1302/2058-5241.1.160017


Watson, A. (2019). Hammertoe deformity. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1235341-overview




Iliotibial Band Syndrome


Aderem, J., & Louw, Q. A. (2015). Biomechanical risk factors associated with iliotibial band syndrome in runners: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 16, 356. doi: 10.1186/s12891-015-0808-7


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Martinez, J. (2020). Physical medicine and rehabilitation for iliotibial band syndrome. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/307850-overview


Pegrum, J., Self A., & Hall, N. (2019). Iliotibial band syndrome. BMJ, 364,1980. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l980


Shamus, J., & Shamus, E. (2015). The management of iliotibial band syndrome with a multifaceted approach: a double case report. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 10(3), 378-390. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26075154/


Lateral Collateral Ligament Injury


Andrews, K., Lu, A., Mckean, L., & Ebraheim, N. (2017). Review: Medial collateral ligament injuries. Journal of Orthopaedics, 14(4), 550-554. doi: 10.1016/j.jor.2017.07.017


Armstrong, A. D., & Hubbard, M. C. (2016). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care (5th ed.). American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.


Bronstein, R. D., & Schaffer, J. C. (2017). Physical examination of the knee: meniscus, cartilage, and patellofemoral conditions. The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 25(5), 365-374. https://doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-15-00464


Grawe, B., Schroeder, A. J., Kakazu, R., & Messer, M. S. (2018). Lateral collateral ligament injury about the knee: anatomy, evaluation, and management. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 26(6), e120–e127.


Jain, A. (2016). Turek's Orthopaedics: Principles and Their Applications. (7th ed., Vol. 2). Wolters Kluwer Health.


Miller, M. D., & Thompson, S. R. (2020). DeLee & Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. (5th ed.) Elsevier Health Sciences.


Parks, E. (2017). Practical Office Orthopedics. McGraw-Hill Education.


Rosas, H.G. (2016). Pelvis and lower extremity: Unraveling the posterolateral corner of the knee. RadioGraphics, 36, 1776–1791. http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.2016160027


Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease


Burns, C. E., Brady, M. A., Blosser, C., Starr, N. B, Dunn, A. M. & Garzon Maaks, D. L. (2016). Pediatric Primary Care. (6th ed). Elsevier.


Ferri, F. (2020). Ferri’s 2020 Clinical Advisor. Elsevier.


Harris, G., & Jaffe, W. (2020). Legg-Calve-Perthes disease treatment & management. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1248267-overview

Hay, W. W., Levin, M. J., Deterding, R. R. & Abzug, M. J. (2018). Current Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics. (24th ed.). McGraw Hill Education Lange.


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.) APEA.


Richardson, B. (2020). Pediatric Primary Care. Practice Guidelines for Nurses. (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.


Low Back Pain


Baron, R., Binder, A., Attal, N., Casale, R., Dickenson, A. H., & Treede, R. D. (2016). Neuropathic low back pain in clinical practice. European Journal of Pain, 20(6), 861-873. DOI: 10.1002/ejp.838


Chou, R., Deyo, R., Friedly, J., Skelly, A., Weimer, M., Fu, R., ... & Grusing, S. (2017). Systemic pharmacologic therapies for low back pain: a systematic review for an American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Annals of Internal Medicine, 166(7), 480-492. DOI: 10.7326/M16-2458


Chou, R., Hashimoto, R., Friedly, J., Fu, R., Dana, T., Sullivan, S., ... & Jarvik, J. (2015). Pain management injection therapies for low back pain. Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25879124/


Skelly, A. C., Chou, R., Dettori, J. R., Turner, J. A., Friedly, J. L., Rundell, S. D., ... & Ferguson, A. J. (2018). Noninvasive nonpharmacological treatment for chronic pain: a systematic review. Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30179389/


Suri, P., Delaney, K., Rundell, S. D., & Cherkin, D. C. (2018). Predictive validity of the STarT Back tool for risk of persistent disabling back pain in a U.S. primary care setting. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 99(8), 1533-1539. DOI: 10.1016/j.apmr.2018.02.016


Qaseem, A., Wilt, T. J., McLean, R. M., & Forciea, M. A. (2017). Noninvasive treatments for acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain: A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 166(7), 514-530. https://doi.org/10.7326/M16-2367


Mallet Finger



Armstrong, A. D., & Hubbard, M. C. (2016). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care. (5th ed.). American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.


Jain, A. (2016). Turek's Orthopaedics: Principles and Their Applications. (7th ed., Vol. 2). Wolters Kluwer Health.


McMahon, P. J., Kaplan, L. D., & Popkin, C. A. (2014). Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Orthopedics. (5th ed.). McGraw-Hill Companies.


Miller, M. D., & Thompson, S. R. (2020). DeLee & Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. (5th ed.) Elsevier Health Sciences.


Parks, E. (2017). Practical Office Orthopedics. McGraw-Hill Education.


Medial Collateral Ligament Injury


Andrews, K., Lu, A., Mckean, L., & Ebraheim, N. (2017). Review: Medial collateral ligament injuries. Journal of Orthopaedics, 14(4), 550-554. DOI: 10.1016/j.jor.2017.07.017


Armstrong, A. D., & Hubbard, M. C. (2016). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care. (5th ed.). American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.


Bronstein, R. D., & Schaffer, J. C. (2017). Physical examination of the knee: meniscus, cartilage, and patellofemoral conditions. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 25(5), 365-374. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-15-00464


Jain, A. (2016). Turek's Orthopaedics: Principles and Their Applications. (7th ed., Vol. 2). Wolters Kluwer Health.


Krebs, C., Tranovich, M., Andrews, K., & Ebraheim, N. (2018). The medial patellofemoral ligament: review of the literature. Journal of Orthopaedics, 15(2), 596-599. DOI: 10.1016/j.jor.2018.05.004


Miller, M. D., & Thompson, S. R. (2020). DeLee & Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. (5th ed.): Elsevier Health Sciences.


Parks, E. (2017). Practical Office Orthopedics. McGraw-Hill Education.


Peterson, L., & Renstrom, P. A. (2017). Sports Injuries: Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation. (4th ed.). CRC Press LLC.


Roach, C., Haley, C., Cameron, K., et al. (2014). The epidemiology of medial collateral ligament sprains in young athletes. American Journal of Sports Medicine 42:1103. DOI: 10.1177/0363546514524524




Metatarsus Adductus


Burns, C. E., Dunn, A. M., Brady, M. A., Blosser, C., Starr, N. B. & Garzon Maaks, D.L. (2016). Pediatric Primary Care. (6th ed.). W.B. Saunders.


Ferri, F. (2020). Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2020. Elsevier.


Hay, W. W., Levin, M. J., Deterding, R. R. & Abzug, M. J. (2018). Current Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics. (24th ed.). McGraw Hill Education Lange.


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Metatarsus adductus. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Moses, S. (2017). Metatarsus adductus. Family Practice Notebook. http://www.fpnotebook.com/Ortho/Peds/Mtrsadcts.htm


Patel, Minoo. (2019). Tibial torsion. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1251352-overview


Richardson, B. (2020). Pediatric Primary Care. Practice Guidelines for Nurses. (4th ed). Jones & Bartlett Learning.


United States National Library of Medicine. (2016). Metatarsus adductus. Medline. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001601.htm


Osgood-Schlatter Disease


Armstrong, A. D. & Hubbard, M. C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care (5th ed.) American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.


Barber Foss, K. D., Myer, G. D. & Hewett, T. E. (2014). Epidemiology of basketball, soccer, and volleyball injuries in middle-school female athletes. Physician and Sports Medicine. 42(2), 146-53.


Circi, E., Atalay, Y. & Beyzadeoglu, T. (2017). Treatment of Osgood-Schlatter disease: Review of the literature. Musculoskeletal Surgery. 101, 195-200.


Dobbe, A. M. & Gibbons, P. J. (2017). Common paediatric conditions of the lower limb. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 53, 1077-1085. DOI: 10.1111/jpc.13756


Lipman, R. R. (2015). A review of knee pain in adolescent females. The Nurse Practitioner. 40(7), 28-36. doi: 10.1097/01.NPR.0000469140.95484.86


McMahon, P. J., Kaplan, L. D., & Popkin, C. A. (2014). Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Orthopedics. (5th ed.). McGraw-Hill Companies.


Miller, M. D., & Thompson, S. R. (2020). DeLee & Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. (5th ed.): Elsevier Health Sciences.


Yen, Y. (2014). Assessment and treatment of knee pain in the child and adolescent athlete. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 61(6), 1155-1173. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2014.08.003


Osteoarthritis


Hollier, A. (Ed.) (2018). Osteoarthritis. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Hochberg, M. C., Altman, R. D., April, K. T., Benkhalti, M., Guyatt, G., McGowan, J., Tugwell, P. (2012). American College of Rheumatology 2012 recommendations for the use of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies in osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee. Arthritis Care & Research, 64(4), 465-474. Doi:10.1002/acr.21596


Kolasinki, S. L., Neogi, T., Hochberg, M. C., Oatis, C., Guyatt, G., … Reston, J. (2020). 2019 American College of Rheumatology/Arthritis Foundation guideline for the management of osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee. Arthritis & Rheumatology, 72(2), 220-233. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.41142


Lozada, C. (2020). Osteoarthritis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/330487-overview


MPR Publications. (2020). Monthly Prescribing Reference. https://www.empr.com/browse-by-therapeutic-category/


Stanos, S. (2013). Osteoarthritis Guidelines: A progressive role for topical NSAIDs. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 113(2), 123-127. Doi:10.7556/jaoa.2013.113.2.123


Osteoporosis


Adler, R. A., Gada, E. F., Bauer, D. C., Camacho, P. M., … Sellmeyer, D.E. (2016). Managing osteoporosis in patients on long-term bisphosphonate treatment: report of a task force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Journal of Bone Mineral Research. 31(1), 19-35. DOI: 10.1002/jbmr.2708


Anthamatten, A., & Parish, A., (2019). Clinical update on osteoporosis. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. doi: 10.1111/jmwh.12954.


Bindon, B., Adams, W., Balasubramanian, N., Sandhu, J., Camacho, P. (2018). Osteoporotic fractures during bisphosphonate drug holiday. Endocrine Practice, 24(2), 163-169. doi: 10.4158/EP171975.OR


Cosman, F., Crittenden, D. B., Adachi, J. D., … Grauer, A. (2016). Romosozumab treatment in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. New England Journal of Medicine, 375(16), 1532-1543. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1607948


Cosman, F., De Beur, S. J., LeBoff, M. S., Lewiecki, E. M., Tanner, B., Randall, S., & Lindsay, R. (2014). Clinician’s guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis International, 25, 2381. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s00198-014-2794-2


Couris, R. R., Dinsmore, S., & Grams, M. K., (2018). Osteoporosis. In C.S. Zeind & M.G. Carvahlo (Eds.) Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs. (11th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.


French, K.D., & Emanuele, D., (2019). Osteoporosis: increasing screening and treatment for postmenopausal women. Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 15, 347-350. doi: 10.1016/j.nurpra.2019.02.014


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Osteoporosis. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Qaseem, A., Forciea, M. A., McLean, R. M., Denberg, T. D., for the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. (2017). Treatment of low bone density or osteoporosis to prevent fractures in men and women: a clinical practice guideline update from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 166(11), 818-839. doi: 10.7326/M15-1361


Shanks, G., Sharma, D., & Mishra, V. (2019). Prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in women. Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine, 29(7), 201-206. doi: 10.1016/j.ogrm.2019.04.001


Tsourdi, E., Langdah, B. (2017). Discontinuation of denosumab therapy for osteoporosis: a systematic review and position statement by ECTS. Bone, 105, 11-17. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2017.08.003


U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2018). Osteoporosis to prevent fractures: screening. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/document/RecommendationStatementFinal/osteoporosis-screening


Pain Management in Orthopedics


Allen, A. D., Choong, P. F., Davis, A. M., et al. (2016). Osteoarthritis: models for appropriate care across the disease continuum. Best Practice and Research Clinical Rheumatology, 30, 503-535. doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2016.09.003


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2017). Safety and prevention: acetaminophen dosage table for fever and pain. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/at-home/medication-safety/Pages/Acetaminophen-for-Fever-and-Pain.aspx


American College of Rheumatology. (2017). Osteoarthritis guidelines pocket guide. https://www.guidelinecentral.com/shop/osteoarthritis-guidelines-pocket-card/


Bliddal, H., Leeds A. R., & Christensen, R. (2014). Osteoarthritis, obesity and weight loss: evidence, hypotheses and horizons: A scoping review. Obesity Reviews 15, 578–586. doi: 10.1111/obr.12173


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Physical activity for arthritis. https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/physical-activity-overview.html


Kizior, R. J. & Hodgson, K. J. (2020). Saunders Nursing Drug Handbook 2020. Elsevier: St. Louis, Mo.


Norwell, J. (2017). Tibia and fibula fracture medication: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), analgesics, immunoglobulins, toxoids. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/826304-medication


Xu, C., Gu, K., Yasen Y., & Hou, Y. (2016). Efficacy and safety of celecoxib therapy in osteoarthritis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine, 95 (20), e3585. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000003585’


Pes Cavus


Armstrong, A. D., & Hubbard, M. C. (2016). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care. (5th ed.). American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.


Eleswarapu, A. S., Yamini, B., & Bielski, R. J. (2016). Evaluating the cavus foot. Pediatric Annals, 45(6), e218-222. doi: 10.3928/00904481-20160426-01


McMahon, P. J., Kaplan, L. D., & Popkin, C. A. (2014). Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Orthopedics. (5th ed.) McGraw-Hill Companies.


Turner, N. S. (2020). Pes cavus. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1236538-overview


Pes Planus


Abousayed, M. M., Alley, M. C., Shakked, R. & Rosenbaum, A. J. (2017). Adult acquired flatfoot deformity: etiology, diagnosis and management. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery Reviews, 5(8): e7. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.RVW.16.00116


Armstrong, A. D. & Hubbard, M. C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care. (5th ed.). American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.


Buchanan, M. (2019). Pes planus (Flatfoot). Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1236652-overview


Radovic, P. A. (2016). Flatfoot (Pes Planus). Medicine Net. https://www.medicinenet.com/flatfoot_pes_planus/article.htm


Toullec, E. (2015). Adult flatfoot. Orthopedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research. 10(1): S11-S17. doi: 10.1016/j.otsr.2014.07.030


Plantar Fascitis


Ahmad, J., Ahmad, S. H., & Jones, K. (2017). Treatment of plantar fasciitis with botulinum toxin. Foot & Ankle International, 38(1), 1-7. doi: 10.1177/1071100716666364


Armstrong, A. D. & Hubbard, M. C. (2016). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care (5th ed.) American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.


Arnold, M. J., & Moody, A. L. (2018). Common running injuries: evaluation and management. American Family Physician, 97(8), 510-516.


Latt, L. D., Jaffe, D. E., Tang, Y., & Taljanovic, M. S. (2020). Evaluation and treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/2473011419896763


Owens, J. M. (2017). Diagnosis and management of plantar fasciitis in primary care. Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 13(5), 354-359. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2016.12.016


Parks, E. (2017). Practical Office Orthopedics. McGraw-Hill Education.


Tu, P. (2018). Heel pain: diagnosis and management. American Family Physician, 97(2), 86-93.


Rheumatoid Arthritis


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Arthritis-related statistics. https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/data_statistics/arthritis-related-stats.htm


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Arthritis risk factors. https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/risk-factors.htm


Chamberlain, V. (2014). Rheumatoid arthritis: Making an early diagnosis. Practice Nursing, 25(2), 73-76.


Goldenberg, D. (2017). The Primary care provider’s role in diagnosing and treating rheumatoid arthritis. Practical Pain Management, 17(5). https://www.practicalpainmanagement.com/pain/myofascial/inflammatory-arthritis/primary-care-provider-role-diagnosing-treating-rheumatoid


Laxer, R. M., Sherry, D. D., & Hashkes, P. J. (2016). Pediatric Rheumatology in Clinical Practice. (2nd ed.) Springer-Verlag.


MPR Publications. (2020). Monthly Prescribers Reference. https://www.empr.com/browse-by-therapeutic-category/


Singh, J. A., Furst, D. E., Bharat, A., Curtis, J. R., Kavanaugh, A. F., Kremer, J. M., Saag, K. G. (2015). 2015 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care & Research, 65(5). DOI 10.1002/acr.22783 https://www.rheumatology.org/Portals/0/Files/ACR%202015%20RA%20Guideline.pdf


Smith, H. R. (2020). Rheumatoid arthritis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/331715-overview


Rotator Cuff Syndrome


Armstrong, A. D. & Hubbard, M. C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care. (5th ed.) American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.


Greenberg, D. L. (2014). Evaluation and treatment of shoulder pain. Medical Clinics of North America. 98(3), 487–504.


Jain, A. (2016). Turek's Orthopaedics: Principles and Their Applications. (7th ed., Vol. 2). Wolters Kluwer Health.


McMahon, P. J., Kaplan, L. D., & Popkin, C. A. (2014). Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Orthopedics. (5th ed.) McGraw-Hill Companies.


Parks, E. (2017). Practical Office Orthopedics. McGraw-Hill Education.


Varacallo, M., El Betar, Y., Mair, S. D. (2020). Rotator cuff syndrome. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK531506/


Scoliosis


Armstrong, A. D. & Hubbard, M. C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care (5th ed.) American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.


Baaj, A., Mummaneni, P., Uribe, J., Vaccaro, A. R., & Greenberg, M. S. (2015). Handbook of Spine Surgery. Thieme Medical Publishers.


Garfin, S. R., Eismont, F. J., Bell, G. R., Bono, C. M., & Fischgrund, J. (2017). Rothman-Simeone The Spine E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.


Jain, A. (2016). Turek's Orthopaedics: Principles and Their Applications. (7th ed., Vol. 2). Wolters Kluwer Health.


Kuznia, A., Hernandez, A. K., Lee, L. U. (2020). Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: questions and answers. American Family Physician, 101(1), 19-23. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/p19.html





Shoulder Impingement Syndrome


Allen, D. (2016). Outlet (subacromial) impingement. Orthobullets. www.orthobullets.com/sports/3041/outlet-subacromial-impingement


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2017). Safety and prevention: acetaminophen dosage table for fever and pain. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/at-home/medication-safety/Pages/Acetaminophen-for-Fever-and-Pain.aspx


Creech, J. A., Silver, S. (2020). Shoulder impingement syndrome. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554518/


Pieters, L., Lewis, J., Kuppens, K., Jochems, J., Bruijstens, T., Joossens, L., & Struyf, F. (2020). An update of systematic reviews examining the effectiveness of conservative physical therapy interventions for subacromial shoulder pain. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 50(3), 131–141.


Fralich, L., Stevenson, J. H. (2020). Shoulder pain. In The Five Minute Clinical Consult. Lippincott.


Kizior, R.J. & Hodgson, K.J. (2020). Saunders Nursing Drug Handbook 2020. Elsevier.


Steuri, R., Sattelmayer, M., Elsig, S., Kolly, C., Tal, A., Taeymans, J., & Hilfiker, R. (2017). Effectiveness of conservative interventions including exercise, manual therapy and medical management in adults with shoulder impingement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(18), 1340-1347.


Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis


Ferri, F. (2020). Ferri’s 2020 Clinical Advisor. Elsevier.


Hay, W. W., Levin, M. J., Deterding, R. R. & Abzug, M. J. (2018). Current Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics. (24th ed.). McGraw Hill Education.


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Slipped capital femoral epiphysis. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Loder, R. (2020). Slipped capital femoral epiphysis. BMJ Best Practice. https://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-us/757


Maaks, D. L., Starr, N. B., Brady, M. A., Gaylord, N. M., Driessnack, M. & Duderstadt, K. (2020). Burns’ Pediatric Primary Care. (7th ed.) Elsevier.


Richardson, B. (2020). Pediatric Primary Care. Practice Guidelines for Nurses. (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.


Walter, K. & Young, C. (2018). Slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/91596-overview#a6


Sprain-Strain


Editorial board, JOSPT. (2017). Knee ligament sprains and tears clinical practice guidelines-ensuring best care. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 47(11), 824. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0511


Feger, M., Glaviano, N., Donovan, L., Hart, J., Saliba, S., Park, J., & Hertel, J. (2017). Current trends in the management of lateral ankle sprain in the united states. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine, 27(2), 145-152. doi:10.1097/JSM.0000000000000321

Logerstedt, D., Scalzitti, D., Risberg, M., Engebretsen, L., Webster, K., Feller, J., . . . McDonough, C. (2017). Knee stability and movement coordination impairments: Knee ligament sprain revision 2017. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 47(11), A1-A47. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0303


Newsham, K. (2019). The ubiquitous lateral ankle sprain: Time to reconsider our management? Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 15(5), 343-346. doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2019.01.019


Young, C. C. (2019). Ankle sprains. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1907229-overview


Subluxation of the Radial Head


Armstrong, A. D. & Hubbard, M. C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care (5th ed.) American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.


Baiu, I., & Melendez, E. (2018). Nursemaid's elbow (elbow subluxation). JAMA, 319(5), 515. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.22031


Dixon, A., Clarkin, C., Barrowman, N., Correll, R., Osmond, M. H. & Plint, A. C. (2014). Reduction of radial-head subluxation in children by triage nurses in the emergency department: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 186(9): E317-23. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.131101


Gungor, F., & Kilic, T. (2017). Point-of-care ultrasonography to assist in the diagnosis and management of subluxation of the radial head in pediatric patients: a case series. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 52(5), 702-706. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2017.01.049


Krul, M., van der Wouden, J. C., Kruithof, E. J., van Suijlekom-Smit, L. W., & Koes, B. W. (2017). Manipulative interventions for reducing pulled elbow in young children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 7, Cd007759. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007759.pub3


Spiegel, R., & Kleist, S. (2018). Hyperpronation method for reduction of nursemaid's elbow. American Family Physician, 97(10). https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0515/od2.pdf


Talipes Equinovarus


Burns, C. E., Dunn, A. M., Brady, M. A., Blosser, C., Starr, N. B. & Garzon Maaks, D. L. (2020). Burns’ Pediatric Primary Care. (7th ed.) W.B. Saunders.


Ferri, F. (2020). Ferri’s 2020 Clinical Advisor. Elsevier.


Hay, W. W., Levin, M. J., Deterding, R. R. & Abzug, M. J. (2018). Current Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics. (24th ed.) McGraw Hill Education Lange.


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Talipes equinovarus. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care, (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Patel, M. & Panchbhavi, V. (2019). Clubfoot. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1237077-overview


Richardson, B. (2020). Pediatric Primary Care. Practice Guidelines for Nurses. (4th ed.) Jones & Bartlett Learning.


Sheth, U., Shirley, E., & Kay, R. (2019). Clubfoot (congenital talipes equinovarus). https://www.orthobullets.com/pediatrics/4062/clubfoot-congenital-talipes-equinovarus


Transient Synovitis of the Hip


Burns, C. E., Dunn, A. M., Brady, M. A., Blosser, C., Starr, N. B. & Garzon Maaks, D. L. (2020). Pediatric Primary Care. (7th ed.) W.B. Saunders.


Boyle, M. (2019). Transient synovitis of the hip. Pediatric Orthopedic Society of North America. https://posna.org/Physician-Education/Study-Guide/Transient-Synovitis-of-the-Hip


Edgington, J., Abousamra, O., Skaggs, D. (2018) Transient Synovitis of Hip. Ortho Bullets. https://www.orthobullets.com/pediatrics/4030/transient-synovitis-of-hip


Ferri, F. (2020). Ferri’s 2020 Clinical Advisor. Elsevier.


Hay, W. W., Levin, M. J., Deterding, R. R. & Abzug, M. J. (2018). Current Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics. (24th ed.) McGraw Hill Education.


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Transient synovitis of the hip in children. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Richardson, B. (2020). Pediatric Primary Care. Practice Guidelines for Nurses. (4th ed). Jones & Bartlett Learning.


Whitelaw, C. & Jung, L. (2018). Transient synovitis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1007186-overview


Upper Extremity Joint Derangement


Armstrong, A.D. & Hubbard, M.C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care. (5th ed.) American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.


Benjamin, H. J. (2018). Little League elbow syndrome. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/97101-overview


Bruce, J. R., & Andrews, J. R. (2014). Ulnar collateral ligament injuries in the throwing athlete. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 22(5), 315-325. DOI: 10.5435/JAAOS-22-05-315


Marshall, K. W. (2014). Overuse upper extremity injuries in the skeletally immature patient: beyond Little League shoulder and elbow. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, 18(5), 469-477. doi:10.1055/s-0034-1389264


Paz, D. A., Chang, G. H., Yetto, J. M., Dwek, J. R. & Chung, C. B. (2015). Upper extremity overuse injuries in pediatric athletes: clinical presentation, imaging findings, and treatment. Clinical Imaging. 39(6):954-964. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinimag.2015.07.028


Saltzman, B. M., Chalmers, P. N., Mascarenhas, R., Cole, B. J. & Romeo, A.A. (2014). Upper extremity physeal injury in young baseball pitchers. The Physician and Sports Medicine. 42(3):100-11. DOI: 10.3810/psm.2014.09.2081




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