Physical Examinations

Preparticipation Physical


American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine. (2019). Preparticipation physical evaluation. Physical Examination Form. https://downloads.aap.org/AAP/PDF/PPE-Physical-Examination-Form.pdf


American Academy of Professional Coders. (2017). Recommended ways to document and report a preventive visit. https://www.aapc.com/blog/39873-recommended-ways-to-document-and-report-a-preventive-visit/


Artandi, M. K., & Stewart, R. W. (2018). The outpatient physical examination. Medical Clinics of North America, 102, 476-473. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2017.12.008.


Drezner, J., Corrado, D. (2011). Is there evidence for recommending electrocardiogram as part of the pre-participation examination? Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 21(1), 18-24. doi: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e318205dfb2


Gorbenko, K., Metcalf, S. A., Mazumdar, M., & Crump, C. (2017). Annual physical examinations and wellness visits: translating guidelines into practice. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 52(6), 813-816. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.005


Hurt, R. T., & McClave, S. (2016). Nutritional assessment in primary care. Medical Clinics of North America, 100, 1169-1183. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2016.06.001


LeDoux, J., Mann, C., Demoratz, M, & Young, J. (2019). Addressing spiritual and religious influences in care delivery. Professional Case Management, 24(3), 142-147. doi:10.1097/ncm.000000000000346


Mirabelli, M. H., Devine, M. J., Singh, J., & Mendoza, M. (2015). The preparticipation sports evaluation. American Family Physician, 92(5), 371-376. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0901/p371.html


Wray, C. V., Brauer, P. M., Heuberger, R. S., & Logomarsino, J. V. (2019). Improving documentation of pediatric height, weight, and body mass index by primary care providers. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research, 79, 186-190. DOI: 10.3148/cjdpr-2018-019


Adult Annual Physical


Artandi, M. K., & Stewart, R. W. (2018). The outpatient physical examination. Medical Clinics of North America, 102, 476-473. DOI: 10.1016/j.mcna.2017.12.008


Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2019a). Preventive & screening services. https://www.medicare.gov/coverage/preventive-screening-services


Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2019b). "Welcome to Medicare" preventive visit. https://www.medicare.gov/coverage/welcome-to-medicare-preventive-visit


Gorbenko, K., Metcalf, S. A., Mazumdar, M., & Crump, C. (2017). Annual physical examinations and wellness visits: Translating guidelines into practice. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 52(6), 813-816. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.005


Hicks, R. W., Seibert, D. C. (2020). The Comprehensive Health History and Physical Examination. (2nd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Hurt, R. T., & McClave, S. (2016). Nutritional assessment in primary care. Medical Clinics of North America, 100, 1169-1183. DOI: 10.1016/j.mcna.2016.06.001


Jiang, M., Hughes, D. R., & Wang, W. (2018). The effect of Medicare's annual wellness visit on preventive care for the elderly. Preventive Medicine, 116, 126-133. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.08.035


LeDoux, J., Mann, C., Demoratz, M, & Young, J. (2019). Addressing spiritual and religious influences in care delivery. Professional Case Management, 24(3), 142-147. doi:10.1097/ncm.000000000000346


Tatum III, P. E., Talebreza, S., & Ross, J. S. (2018). Geriatric assessment: an office-based approach. American Family Physician, 97(12), 776-784. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p776.html


U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (n.d.). USPSTF A and B recommendations. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Name/uspstf-a-and-b-recommendations/


Virgini, V., Meindl-Fridez, C., Battegay, E., & Zimmerli, L. U. (2015). Check-up examination: recommendations in adults. Swiss Medical Weekly, 145, w14075. doi:10.4414/smw.2015.14075


Older Adult Annual Physical


Artandi, M. K., & Stewart, R. W. (2018). The outpatient physical examination. Medical Clinics of North America, 102, 476-473. DOI: 10.1016/j.mcna.2017.12.008


Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2019a). Preventive & screening services. https://www.medicare.gov/coverage/preventive-screening-services


Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2019b). "Welcome to Medicare" preventive visit. https://www.medicare.gov/coverage/welcome-to-medicare-preventive-visit


Gorbenko, K., Metcalf, S. A., Mazumdar, M., & Crump, C. (2017). Annual physical examinations and wellness visits: Translating guidelines into practice. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 52(6), 813-816. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.005


Hicks, R. W., Seibert, D. C. (2020). The Comprehensive Health History and Physical Examination. (2nd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Hurt, R. T., & McClave, S. (2016). Nutritional assessment in primary care. Medical Clinics of North America, 100, 1169-1183. DOI: 10.1016/j.mcna.2016.06.001


Jiang, M., Hughes, D. R., & Wang, W. (2018). The effect of Medicare's annual wellness visit on preventive care for the elderly. Preventive Medicine, 116, 126-133. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.08.035


LeDoux, J., Mann, C., Demoratz, M, & Young, J. (2019). Addressing spiritual and religious influences in care delivery. Professional Case Management, 24(3), 142-147. doi:10.1097/ncm.000000000000346


Tatum III, P. E., Talebreza, S., & Ross, J. S. (2018). Geriatric assessment: an office-based approach. American Family Physician, 97(12), 776-784. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p776.html


U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (n.d.). USPSTF A and B recommendations. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Name/uspstf-a-and-b-recommendations/


Virgini, V., Meindl-Fridez, C., Battegay, E., & Zimmerli, L. U. (2015). Check-up examination: recommendations in adults. Swiss Medical Weekly, 145, w14075. doi:10.4414/smw.2015.14075


'Welcome to Medicare' Physical


Artandi, M. K., & Stewart, R. W. (2018). The outpatient physical examination. Medical Clinics of North America, 102, 476-473. DOI: 10.1016/j.mcna.2017.12.008


Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2019a). Preventive & screening services. https://www.medicare.gov/coverage/preventive-screening-services


Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2019b). "Welcome to Medicare" preventive visit. https://www.medicare.gov/coverage/welcome-to-medicare-preventive-visit


Hicks, R. W., Seibert, D. C. (2020). The Comprehensive Health History and Physical Examination. (2nd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Hurt, R. T., & McClave, S. (2016). Nutritional assessment in primary care. Medical Clinics of North America, 100, 1169-1183. DOI: 10.1016/j.mcna.2016.06.001


Jiang, M., Hughes, D. R., & Wang, W. (2018). The effect of Medicare's annual wellness visit on preventive care for the elderly. Preventive Medicine, 116, 126-133. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.08.035


LeDoux, J., Mann, C., Demoratz, M, & Young, J. (2019). Addressing spiritual and religious influences in care delivery. Professional Case Management, 24(3), 142-147. doi:10.1097/ncm.000000000000346


Tatum III, P. E., Talebreza, S., & Ross, J. S. (2018). Geriatric assessment: an office-based approach. American Family Physician, 97(12), 776-784. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p776.html


U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (n.d.). USPSTF A and B recommendations. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Name/uspstf-a-and-b-recommendations/


Physical Examination of the Patient With a History of Cancer


American Cancer Society. (2018). American Cancer Society guideline for colorectal cancer screening. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/colon-rectal-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/acs-recommendations.html


American Cancer Society. (n.d.). American Cancer Society Prevention and Early Detection Guidelines. https://www.cancer.org/health-care-professionals/american-cancer-society-prevention-early-detection-guidelines.html


American Cancer Society. (2020). American Cancer Society recommendations for the early detection of breast cancer. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/screening-tests-and-early-detection/american-cancer-society-recommendations-for-the-early-detection-of-breast-cancer.html


American Cancer Society. (2020). Cancer screening guidelines by age. https://www.cancer.org/healthy/find-cancer-early/cancer-screening-guidelines/screening-recommendations-by-age.html


American Cancer Society. (2020). Cervical cancer screening guidelines. https://www.cancer.org/health-care-professionals/american-cancer-society-prevention-early-detection-guidelines/cervical-cancer-screening-guidelines.html


American Cancer Society. (2020). Managing nausea and vomiting at home. https://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatments-and-side-effects/physical-side-effects/nausea-and-vomiting/other-treatments.html


American Society of Clinical Oncology. (2020). Lynch syndrome. https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/lynch-syndrome


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Human papillomavirus vaccination information for clinicians. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/hpv/hcp/index.html


Islami, F., Goding, A. S., Miller, K. D., Siegel, R. L., Fedewa, S., Jacobs, E. J., … Jemal, V. (2018). Proportion and number of cancer cases and deaths attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors in the United States. CA: Cancer Journal For Clinicians, 68, 31-54. doi: 10.3322/caac.21440


Lawrence, R. A., McLoone, J. K., Wakefield, C. E., Cohn, R. J. (2015). Primary care physicians’ perspectives of their role in cancer care: A systematic review. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 31(10), 1222-1236. doi: 10.1007/s11606-016-3746-7


Maas, P., Barrdahl, M., Joshi, A. D., Paul, A. L., Gaudet, M. M., Milne, R. L., … Chatterjee, N. (2016). Breast cancer risk from modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors among white women in the United States. JAMA Oncology, 2(10), 1295-1302. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.1025


National Cancer Institute. (2020). Cancer stat facts: common cancer sites. https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/common.html


National Cancer Institute. (2018). Radiation therapy side effects. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/types/radiation-therapy/side-effects


National Cancer Institute. (2015). Risk factors for cancer. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk


National Cancer Institute. (n.d.). Side effects of cancer treatments. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/side-effects


National Comprehensive Cancer Network. (2020). Breast cancer. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/breast.pdf


National Comprehensive Cancer Network. (2020). Breast cancer risk reduction. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/breast_risk.pdf


National Comprehensive Cancer Network. (2019). Breast cancer screening and diagnosis. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/breast-screening.pdf


National Comprehensive Cancer Network. (2020). Cervical cancer. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/cervical.pdf


National Comprehensive Cancer Network. (2020). Colon cancer. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/colon.pdf


National Comprehensive Cancer Network. (2020). Colorectal cancer screening. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/colorectal_screening.pdf


National Comprehensive Cancer Network. (2019). Genetic/familial high-risk assessment: breast and ovarian. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/genetics_screening.pdf


National Comprehensive Cancer Network. (2019). Lung cancer screening. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/lung_screening.pdf


National Comprehensive Cancer Network. (2020). Non-small cell lung cancer. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/nscl.pdf


National Comprehensive Cancer Network. (2020). Prostate cancer. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/prostate.pdf


National Comprehensive Cancer Network. (2019). Prostate cancer early detection. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/prostate_detection.pdf


National Comprehensive Cancer Network. (2020). Survivorship. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/survivorship.pdf

Porth, C. M. (2019). Porth’s Essentials of Pathophysiology (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.


Rosenweig, M. G., Gardenr, D., Griffith, B. (2014). The history and physical in cancer care: A primer for oncology advanced practitioner. Journal of Advanced Practitioner in Oncology, 5(4), 262-268.


Tick, H., Nielsen, A., Pelletier, K. R., Bonakdar, R., Simmons, S., Glick, R., … Zador, V. (2018). Evidenced-based nonpharmacologic strategies for comprehensive pain care: The Consortium Pain Task Force white paper. Explore, 14(3),177-211. DOI: 10.1016/j.explore.2018.02.001


U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2016). Final recommendation statement: prostate cancer screening. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/prostate-cancer-screening1



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