Reproductive Health

Contraception


Casey, F. E. (2020). Contraception. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/258507


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Contraception. https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/contraception/index.htm


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/contraception/mmwr/mec/summary.html


Hatcher, R.A. (Ed.). (2018). Contraceptive Technology. (21st ed.). Managing Contraception, LLC.


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Contraception. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Kaneshiro, B., & Aeby, T. (2010). Long-term safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of the intrauterine Copper T-380A contraceptive device. International Journal of Women's Health, 2, 211-220. doi:10.2147/ijwh.s6914


World Health Organization. (2015). Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. (5th ed.). WHO.


World Health Organization. (2018). Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers. WHO.


Preconception Care


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Good health before pregnancy: prepregnancy care. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Good-Health-Before-Pregnancy-Prepregnancy-Care


Arluck, J. C. (2018). Preconception care for the general ob/gyn. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 61(1), 62-71. DOI: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000338


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Before pregnancy. https://www.cdc.gov/preconception/women.html


Clark, E. (2017). Pregnancy and prenatal care. In Primary Care: A Collaborative Practice. (5th ed.) (pp. 65-78). Elsevier.


Delcore, L. (2016). Preconception care of the obese woman. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 59(1) , 129-139. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000182


Johnson, C. T. (2020). The John Hopkins Manual of Gynecology and Obstetrics. (6th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.


Prenatal Care


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Committee on Obstetric Practice: Committee Opinion No. 797: Prevention of Group B Streptococcal early-onset disease in newborns. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2020/02/prevention-of-group-b-streptococcal-early-onset-disease-in-newborns


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Routine tests during pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/patient-resources/faqs/pregnancy/routine-tests-during-pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Committee Opinion No. 752: Prenatal and perinatal human immunodeficiency virus testing. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 132(3), e138-e142. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002825


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). ACOG Committee Opinion No. 717: Sulfonamides, nitrofurantoin and risk of birth defects. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 130(3), e150-e152. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002300


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Academy of Pediatrics. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care. (8th ed.). ACOG.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 162: Prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 127(5), e108-e122. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001405


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). ACOG Committee Opinion No. 650: Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 126(6), p. 1326-1327.


U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2009). Screening for hepatitis B virus infection in pregnancy: U.S. Preventive Services task force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(12), 869-873.


Physiologic and Psychologic Changes of Pregnancy


American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care. (8th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics.


Brown, H.D. (2018). Physiology of pregnancy. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/approach-to-the-pregnant-woman-and-prenatal-care/physiology-of-pregnancy


Hall, M. E., George, E. M., Granger, J. P. (2011). The heart during pregnancy. Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition), 64(11), 1045-1050. doi: 10.1016/j.recesp.2011.07.009


LoMauro, A., Aliverti, A. (2015). Respiratory physiology of pregnancy. Breathe, 11(4), 297-301. doi: 10.1183/20734735.008615


Sanghavi, M. (2014). Cardiovascular physiology of pregnancy. Circulation, 130, 1003-1008. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.009029


Soma-Pillay, P., et al. (2016). Physiological changes in pregnancy. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, 27(2), 89-94. doi: 10.5830/CVJA-2016-02


Somani, S. (2015). Pregnancy special considerations. Physiologic ocular changes occurring during pregnancy. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1229740-overview#a2


Medication Use in Pregnancy


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Guidelines and recommendations for treating and managing health conditions during pregnancy. https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/meds/treatingfortwo/treatment-guidelines.html


National Institutes of Health. (2020). LactMed: Drugs and lactation database. https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/lactmed.htm


Pernia, S., DeMaagd, G. (2016). The new pregnancy and lactation labeling rule. Pharmacy & Therapeutics, 41(11), 713-715. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5083079/


U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2014). Content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products; requirements for pregnancy and lactation labeling. Federal Register. https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2014/12/04/2014-28241/content-and-format-of-labeling-for-human-prescription-drug-and-biological-products-requirements-for


U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2016). Pregnancy and lactation labeling (drugs) final rule. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DevelopmentResources/Labeling/ucm093307.htm


Immunization During Pregnancy


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Guidelines for vaccinating pregnant women. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pregnancy/hcp-toolkit/guidelines.html


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Maternal vaccination coverage. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pregnancy/hcp-toolkit/maternal-vaccination-coverage.html


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Why maternal vaccines are important. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pregnancy/hcp-toolkit/important-maternal-vaccines.html


Johnson, C. T. (2020). The Johns Hopkins Manual of Gynecology and Obstetrics. (6th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.


Kauschinger, E. (2016). Primary Care: A Collaborative Practice. (5th ed.) Elsevier.


Nutrition and Exercise in Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Nutrition during pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/patient-resources/faqs/pregnancy/nutrition-during-pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Physical activity and exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 135, e178-e188. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2020/04/physical-activity-and-exercise-during-pregnancy-and-the-postpartum-period


Buttaro, T. M., Trybulski, J., Polgar-Bailey, P., Sandberg-Cook, J. (Eds.). (2017). Pregnancy and prenatal care. In Primary Care: A Collaborative Practice. (5th ed.) Elsevier.


Delcore, L. (2016). Preconception care of the obese woman. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 59(1), 129-139. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000182


Johnson, C. T. (2020). The John Hopkins Manual of Gynecology and Obstetrics. (6th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.


Assessment of Fetal Well-Being: Invasive Prenatal Testing


American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care (8th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). Practice Bulletin No. 145: Antepartum fetal surveillance. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 124(1), 182-92. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000451759.90082.7b


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). Practice Bulletin No. 16: Screening for fetal aneuploidy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 127(5), 979-81. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001439


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). Practice Bulletin No. 162: Prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 127(5), e108-122. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001405

Casanova, R., Chuang, A., Goepfert, A. R., Hueppchen, N. A., & Weiss, P. M. (2019). Beckmann & Ling’s Obstetrics and Gynecology. (8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.


Cunningham, F. G., Leveno, K. J., Bloom, S. L., Dashe, J. S., Hoffman, B. L., Casey, B. M., & Spong, C. Y. (2018). Williams Obstetrics. (25th ed.). McGraw-Hill Medical.


Assessment of Fetal Well-Being: Biophysical Profile of the Fetus


American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care. (8th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014). Practice Bulletin No. 145: Antepartum fetal surveillance. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 124(1), 182-192. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000451759.90082.7b


Casanova, R., Chuang, A., Goepfert, A. R., Hueppchen, N. A., & Weiss, P. M. (2019). Beckmann & Ling’s Obstetrics and Gynecology. (8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.


Cunningham, F. G., Leveno, K. J., Bloom, S. L., Dashe, J. S., Hoffman, B .L., Casey, B. M., & Spong, C. Y. (2018). Williams Obstetrics. (25th ed.). McGraw-Hill Medical.


Assessment of Fetal Well-Being: Maternal Assessment of Fetal Activity


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014). Practice Bulletin No. 145: Antepartum fetal surveillance. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 124(1), 182-192. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000451759.90082.7b


Bryant, J., Jamil, R. T., & Thistle, J. (2020). Fetal Movement. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470566/


Lyndon, A. & Ali, L. U. (2015). Antenatal fetal assessment and testing. In Treanor, C. M. Fetal Health Monitoring: Principles and practices (pp. 286-289). (5th ed.). Kendall Hunt.


Mangesi, L., Hofmeyr, G. J., Smith, V., & Smyth, R. M. D. (2015). Fetal movement counting for assessment of fetal wellbeing (review). Cochrane Database. https://www.cochrane.org/CD004909/PREG_fetal-movement-counting-assessment-fetal-wellbeing


Olagbuji, B. N., Igbarumah, S., Akintayo, A. A., Olifinbiyi, B. A., Oduloju, P. O., & Alao, O. O. (2014). Maternal understanding of fetal movement in the third trimester: a means for fetal monitoring and reducing stillbirth. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 17(4), 489-494. doi: 10.4103/1119.3077.134049


World Health Organization. (2016). WHO recommendation on daily fetal movement. https://extranet.who.int/rhl/topics/preconception-pregnancy-childbirth-and-postpartum-care/antenatal-care/who-recommendation-daily-fetal-movement-counting


Assessment of Fetal Well-Being: Nonstress Testing


American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care (8th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014; affirmed 2019). Practice Bulletin No. 145: Antepartum fetal surveillance. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2014 Jul;124(1):182-92. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000451759.90082.7b


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Nonstress testing. In: Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Assessment of Fetal Well-Being: Ultrasound of the Fetus


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Committee Opinion No. 723: Guidelines for diagnostic imaging during pregnancy and lactation. Obstetrics & Gynecology.130(4): e210-6. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2017/10/guidelines-for-diagnostic-imaging-during-pregnancy-and-lactation


American Pregnancy Association. (n.d.). Ultrasound: sonogram. https://americanpregnancy.org/prenatal-testing/ultrasound/


Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Initiative to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure from medical imaging. https://www.fda.gov/radiation-emitting-products/radiation-safety/initiative-reduce-unnecessary-radiation-exposure-medical-imaging


Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Ultrasound Imaging. https://www.fda.gov/radiation-emitting-products/medical-imaging/ultrasound-imaging


Springer, S. (2018). Prenatal diagnosis and fetal therapy. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/936318-overview#a1


Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Ankle Edema


American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care. (8th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics


Afshan, B., Hameed, C., Morton, H., & and Moore, A. (2017). Improving health care response to cardiovascular disease in pregnancy and postpartum. California Department of Public Health. Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health Division. https://www.cmqcc.org/resources-toolkits/toolkits/improving-health-care-response-cardiovascular-disease-pregnancy-and


Bickley, L. S., & Szilagyi, P. G. (2016). Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. (12th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2019). Old's Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women’s Health Across the Lifespan. (11th ed.). Prentice Hall.


Druzin, M. L., Shields, L. E., Peterson, N. L., Cape, V. (2014). Preeclampsia toolkit: improving health care response to preeclampsia. California Department of Public Health. Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health Division. https://www.cmqcc.org/resources-tool-kits/toolkits/preeclampsia-toolkit


Swamy, G. K., Heine, P. H. (2018). Lower extremity edema during late pregnancy. Merck Manual Professional. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/symptoms-during-pregnancy/lower-extremity-edema-during-late-pregnancy


Tobah, Y. V. (2017). What causes ankle swelling during pregnancy, and what can I do about it? https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/swelling-during-pregnancy/faq-20058467


Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2019). Varney's Midwifery. (6th ed.). Jones and Bartlett Publishers.


Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Backache


American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists. (2020). Patient Resources: back pain during pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Back-Pain-During-Pregnancy


Berber, M. A., Satilmis, I. G. (2020). Characteristics of low back pain in pregnancy. Risk factors and its effects on quality of life. Pain Management Nursing, S1524-9042(20), 30131-30134. doi: 10.1016/j.pmn.2020.05.001


Gregory, D. S., Wu, V. W., & Tuladhar, P. (2018). The pregnant patient: managing common acute medical problems. American Family Physician, 98(9), 595-602. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p595.html


Shah, S., Banh, E. T., Koury, K., Bhatia, G., Nandi, R. & Gulur, P. (2015). Pain management in pregnancy: multimodal approaches. Pain Research and Treatment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/987483


U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Final Rule. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/labeling/pregnancy-and-lactation-labeling-drugs-final-rule


Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Constipation


American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists. (2014). Patient resources. Problems of the digestive system. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Problems-of-the-Digestive-System?IsMobileSet=false


Rungsiprakarn, P., Laopaiboon, M., Sangkomkamhang, U., Lumbiganon, P., Pratt, J. J. (2015). Interventions for treating constipation in pregnancy. Cochrane Library. https://www.cochrane.org/CD011448/PREG_interventions-treating-constipation-pregnancy


U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Pregnancy and lactation labeling final rule. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/labeling/pregnancy-and-lactation-labeling-drugs-final-rule


Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Heartburn


American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists. (2014). Patient resources. Problems of the digestive system. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Problems-of-the-Digestive-System?IsMobileSet=false


Gregory, D. S., Wu, V. W., & Tuladhar, P. (2018). The pregnant patient: managing common acute medical problems. American Family Physician, 98(9), 595-602. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p595.html


U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Pregnancy and lactation labeling (drugs) final rule. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/labeling/pregnancy-and-lactation-labeling-drugs-final-rule


Vazquez, J. C. (2015). Heartburn in pregnancy. BMJ Clinical Evidence. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4562453/pdf/2015-1411.pdf


Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Hemorrhoids


American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists. (2014). Patient resources. Problems of the digestive system. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Problems-of-the-Digestive-System?IsMobileSet=false


Mott, T., Latimer, K., Edwards, C. (2019). Hemorrhoids: diagnosis and treatment options. American Family Physician, 97(3), 172-179. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p172.html


Perry, K. R. (2019). Hemorrhoids. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/775407-overview


Shirah, B.H., et al. (2017). Hemorrhoids during pregnancy: sitz bath vs. anorectal cream: a comparative prospective study of two conservative treatment protocols. Women Birth, 31(4), e272-e277. doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2017.10.003.


U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Pregnancy and lactation labeling (drugs) final rule. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/labeling/pregnancy-and-lactation-labeling-drugs-final-rule


Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Leg Cramps


Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2015). Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women's Health Across the Lifespan. (10th ed.). Prentice Hall.


Gregory, D. S., Wu, V. W., & Tuladhar, P. (2018). The pregnant patient: managing common acute medical problems. American Family Physician, 98(9), 595-602. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p595.html


Zhou, K., West, H. M., Zhan, J., Xu, L., Li, W. (2015). Interventions for leg cramps in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (8), CD010655. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010655.pub2


Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Leukorrhea


American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care. (8th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics.


American Pregnancy Association. (2015). Vaginal discharge during pregnancy. http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-health/vaginal-discharge-during-pregnancy/


Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2015). Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women's Health Across the Lifespan. (10th ed.) Prentice Hall.


Kelsey, B. M. & Hagtalon-Ramos, J. (2020). Midwifery & Women’s Health Nurse Practitioner Certification Review Guide. (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.


Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2015). Varney's Midwifery. (6th ed.). Jones and Bartlett.


Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Nasal Congestion and Epistaxis


Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2015). Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women's Health Across the Lifespan. (10th ed.) Prentice Hall.


Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2018). Varney's Midwifery. (6th ed.). Jones and Bartlett.


Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Nausea and Vomiting


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 189: nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 131(1), e15-e30. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002456


American Pregnancy Association. (n.d.). Nausea help during pregnancy. https://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-concerns/nausea-during-pregnancy/


Duchesnay Pharmaceuticals. Bonjesta prescribing information. https://files.duchesnay.com/duchesnay-usa/bonjesta/bonjesta-prescribing-information.pdf


Duchesnay Pharmaceuticals. Diclegis prescribing information. https://files.duchesnay.com/duchesnay-usa/diclegis/diclegis-prescribing-information.pdf


Gregory, D. S., Wu, V. W., & Tuladhar, P. (2018). The pregnant patient: managing common acute medical problems. American Family Physician, 98(9), 595-602. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p595.html


Kreitzer, M. J., & Koithan, M. (Eds.). (2014). Integrative nursing management of nausea. In Integrative Nursing. (pp. 214-229). Oxford University Press.


U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Pregnancy and lactation labeling (drugs) final rule. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/labeling/pregnancy-and-lactation-labeling-drugs-final-rule


Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Round Ligament Pain


Gregory, D. S., Wu, V. W., & Tuladhar, P. (2018). The pregnant patient: managing common acute medical problems. American Family Physician, 98(9), 595-602. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p595.html


U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Pregnancy and lactation labeling (drugs) final rule. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/labeling/pregnancy-and-lactation-labeling-drugs-final-rule


Zachariah, S. K., Fenn, M., Jacob, K., Arthungal, S. A., & Zachariah, S. A. (2019). Management of acute abdomen in pregnancy: current perspectives. International Journal of Women’s Health, 11, 119-134. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S151501


Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Urinary Frequency


Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2015). Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women's Health Across the Lifespan. (10th ed.) Prentice Hall.


Gregory, D. S., Wu, V.W., & Tuladhar, P. (2018). The pregnant patient: managing common acute medical problems. American Family Physician, 98(9), 595-602. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p595.html


Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2019). Varney's Midwifery. (6th ed.). Jones and Bartlett.


Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Varicose Veins


American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists. (2018). Patient resources: skin conditions during pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Skin-Conditions-During-Pregnancy#varicose


Gavrilov, S. G. (2017). Vulvar varicosities: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. International Journal of Women’s Health (9), 463-475. https://dx.doi.org/10.2147%2FIJWH.S126165


Raetz, J., Wilson, M., & Collins, C. (2019). Varicose veins: diagnosis and treatment. American Family Physician, 99(11), 682-688. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p682.html


Sueyoshi, M., Clevenger, S., & Hart, E. (2018). Large vaginal varicosities in the setting of pregnancy without known hepatic or vascular risks: a case report and review of the literature. Case Reports in Obstetrics & Gynecology. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2394695


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Abruptio Placentae


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 188: Prelabor rupture of membranes. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 131(1):e1-e14. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002455


Deering, S. (2018). Abruptio Placentae. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/252810-overview#a1


Schmidt, P., Raines, D. (2019). Placental abruption (abruptio placentae). In: StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482335/


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Acute Cystitis


Ailes, E .C., Summers, A. D., Tran, E. T., Gilboa, S. M., Arnold, K. E., Meany-Delman, D., Reefhuis, J. (2018). Antibiotics dispensed to privately insured pregnant women with urinary tract infections—United States, 2014. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6701a4.htm?s_cid=mm6701a4_e


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Committee Opinion 717. Sulfonamides, nitrofurantoin, and risk of birth defects. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2017/09/sulfonamides-nitrofurantoin-and-risk-of-birth-defects


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Key findings: antibiotic treatments for urinary tract infections are commonly prescribed to pregnant women. https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/meds/treatingfortwo/features/kf-uti-antibiotic-treatments-pregnant-women.html


Johnson, K. (2017). Urinary tract infections in pregnancy treatment & management. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/452604-treatment


Kalinderi, K., Delkos, D., Kalinderis, M., Athanadiasis, A., Kalogiannidis I. (2018). Urinary tract infection during pregnancy: current concepts on a common multifaceted problem. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 6, 1-6. doi: 10.1080/01443615.2017.1370579


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Cervical Insufficiency


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014, affirmed 2019). ACOG Practice Bulletin No.142: Cerclage for the management of cervical insufficiency. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 123(2 Pt 1), 372-379. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000443276.68274.cc


Dulay, A. T. (2019). Cervical insufficiency. Merck Manual. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/abnormalities-of-pregnancy/cervical-insufficiency


Norwitz, E. (2016). Cervical insufficiency. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1979914-overview


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Ectopic Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). Practice Bulletin No. 193. Tubal ectopic pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 131(3), e91-103. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002560


American Society for Reproductive Medicine Practice Committee. (2013). Medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy: a committee opinion. Fertility and Sterility, 100, 638-644. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.06.013


Gaskins, A. J., Missmer, S. A., Rich-Edwards, J., Williams, P., Souter, I., Chavarro, J. (2018). Demographic, lifestyle, and reproductive risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. Fertility and Sterility, 110(7), 1328-1337. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.08.022


Grugnoli, D. M. (2019). Ectopic pregnancy. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539860/


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Gestational Diabetes


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 190: gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 131(2), 406-408. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002501


American Diabetes Association. (2020). Management of diabetes in pregnancy: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2020. Diabetes Care, 43(Suppl 1), S183-S192. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-S014


Cosson, E., Carbillon, R., & Valensi, P. (2017). High fasting plasma glucose during early pregnancy: a review about early gestational diabetes mellitus. Journal of Diabetes Research. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8921712


Dong, P. (2019). Association of vascular endothelial growth factor expression and polymorphisms with the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcla.22686


Farabi, S. S., & Hernandez, T. L. (2019). Low-carbohydrate diets for gestational diabetes. Nutrients, 11(8), 1737. Doi:10.3390/nu11081737


Guo, X‐Y., Shu, J., Fu, X‐H., Chen, X‐P., Zhang, L., Ji, M‐X., Liu, X‐M., Yu, T‐T., Sheng, J‐Z., Huang, H. F. (2019). Improving the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for gestational diabetes prevention: a meta‐ analysis and meta‐regression. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 126, 311-320. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.15467


Harper, L. M., Mele, L., Landon, M. B., Carpenter, M. W., Ramin, S. M., Reddy, U. M., and Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. (2016). Carpenter-Coustan compared with national diabetes data group criteria for diagnosing gestational diabetes. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 127(5), 893-898. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000001383


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


International Diabetes Federation. (2019). IDF Diabetes Atlas. (9th ed.). https://www.diabetesatlas.org/en/


Gilbert, L., Gross, J., Lanzi, S., Quansah, D. Y., Puder, J., & Horsch, A. (2019). How diet, physical activity and psychosocial well-being interact in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: an integrative review. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, (1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2185-y


Mirghani Dirar, A., & Doupis, J. (2017). Gestational diabetes from A to Z. World Journal of Diabetes, 8(12), 489–511. doi:10.4239/wjd.v8.i12.489


Moore, T. (2020). Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/127547-overview#a2


Nasiri-Amiri, F., Sepidarkish, M., Shirvani, M. A., Habibipour, P. & Tabari, N. (2019). The effect of exercise on the prevention of gestational diabetes in obese and overweight pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, (11), Article number 72. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-019-0470-6


Padayachee, C., & Coombes, J. S. (2015). Exercise guidelines for gestational diabetes mellitus. World Journal of Diabetes, 6(8), 1033-1044. doi:10.4239/wjd.v6.i8.1033


Poomalar, G. K. (2015). Changing trends in management of gestational diabetes mellitus. World Journal of Diabetes, 6(2), 284-295. doi:10.4239/wjd.v6.i2.284


Rani, P. R., & Begum, J. (2016). Screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. Where do we stand? Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR, 10(4), QE01-QE4. doi:10.7860/ JCDR/201 6/17588.7689


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Gestational Trophoblastic Disease


American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care. (7th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics.


Bickley, L. S., & Szilagyi, P. G. (2016). Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. (12th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Cunningham, F. G., Leveno, K. J., Bloom, S. L., Dashe, J. S., Hoffman, B. L., Casey, B. M., & Spong C. Y. (2018). Williams Obstetrics. (25th ed). McGraw-Hill Education.


Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2019). Old's Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women's Health Across the Lifespan. (11th ed.). Prentice Hall.


Hui, P., Baergen, R., Cheung A., et al. (2014). Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia – pathogenesis. In: WHO Classification of Tumours of Female Reproductive Organs. Kurman, R. J., Carcangiu, M. L., Simon Haerrington, C. X., Young, R. H., (Eds). WHO Press.


King, T., Brucker, M., Osborne, K, and Jevitt, C. (2019). Varney’s Midwifery. (6th ed.). Jones and Bartlett Publishers.


Moore, L. E. & Hernandez, E. (2018). Hydatidiform mole. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/254657-overview#a4


Ngan, H., Seckl, M. J., Berkowitz, R. S., Xiang, Y., Golfier, F., Sekharan, P. K., & Lurain, J. R. (2015). Update on the diagnosis and management of gestational trophoblastic disease. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 131, S123-S126. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.12615


Ngan, H., Seckl, M. J., Berkowitz, R. S., Xiang, Y., Golfier, F., Sekharan, P. K., Lurain, J. R., & Massuger, L. (2018). FIGO Cancer Report 2018: Update on the diagnosis and management of gestational trophoblastic disease. Internal Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 143(2), 79-85. DOI: 10.1002/ijgo.12615


Roszenhoic, A., Dodge, J., Breguet, M. & Sautheir, P. (2016). Gestational trophoblastic disease: opportunities for a national registry collaboration. International journal of gynecological cancer, 26(6), 1182-1185.


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Hyperemesis Gravidarum


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Patient Resources. Morning sickness: nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Morning-Sickness-Nausea-and-Vomiting-of-Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). Practice Bulletin No. 189: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 126, e12-24. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002450


Boelig, R. C., Barton, S. J., Saccon, G. Kelly, A. J., Edwards, S. J., Berghella, V. (2017). Interventions for treating hyperemesis gravidarum: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Maternal Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 31(18), 2492-2505. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14767058.2017.1342805


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Hyperemesis gravidarum. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


London, V., Grube, S., Sherer, D.M., Abulafia, O. (2017). Hyperemesis gravidarum: a review of recent literature. Pharmacology, 100, 161-171. doi: 10.1159/000477853


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Iron Deficiency Anemia


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2008, affirmed 2019). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 95: Anemia in pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 112(1), 201-207. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181809c0d


Auerbach, M. & Adamson, J. W. (2016). How we diagnose and treat iron deficiency anemia. American Journal of Hematology, 91(1), 31-38.


Brucker, M. C. & King, T. L. (2017). Vitamins and minerals. In Ferraro, K. Pharmacology for Women’s Health. (2nd ed.). (pp. 106-107). Jones & Bartlett Learning.


Creasy, R. K., Lockwood, C. J., Resnik, R., Moore, T. R., Iams, J. D., & Greene, M. F. (2018). Anemia and pregnancy. In Kilpatrick, S. J. Creasy and Resnik’s Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice. (8th ed.). (pp. 918-931). Elsevier Saunders.


Davidson, M., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2019). Pregnancy at risk: pregestational problems. In Sutter, R. Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing & Women’s Health Across the Lifespan. (11th ed.). (pp. 350). Pearson.


Di Renzo, G. C., Spano, F., Giardina, I., Brillo, E., Clerici, G, & Roura, L. C. (2015). Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. Women’s Health, 11(6), 891-900. doi: 10.2217/whe.15.35

Nguyen, V., Wuebbolt, D. (2017). Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy and treatment options: a patient-preference study. Obstetrics & Gynecology. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000514632.23408.54


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Multiple Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). Patient Resources: Multiple Pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/patient-resources/faqs/pregnancy/multiple-pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 169: Multifetal gestations: twin, triplet, and higher-order multifetal pregnancies. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 128(4), 926-928. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001700


Heard, A. (2016). Multifetal Pregnancy. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1618038-overview


National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2019). NICE Clinical Guideline: antenatal care for uncomplicated pregnancies. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg62


National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2019). NICE Clinical Guideline: twin and triplet pregnancy. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng137


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Placenta Previa


Anderson-Bagga, F. M. & Sze, A. (2019). Placenta previa. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539818/


Bakker, R. (2018). Placenta previa. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/262063-overview


Creasy, R. K., Lockwood, C. J., Resnik, R., Moore, T. R., Iams, J. D., & Greene, M. F. (2018). Placenta previa, placenta accreta, abruptio placentae, and vasa previa. In Hull, A. D. & Resnik, R. Creasy and Resnik’s Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice. (8th ed.). (pp. 732-736). Elsevier Saunders.


Davidson, M., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2016). Pregnancy at risk: pregestational problems. In Sutter, R. Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing & Women’s Health Across the Lifespan. (10th ed.). (pp. 350). Pearson.


Fujisaki, M., Furukawa, S., Maki, Y., Oohashi, M., Doi, K., Sameshma, H. (2017). Maternal morbidity in women with placenta previa managed with morbidly adherent placenta by ultrasonography. Journal of Pregnancy, 1-5. doi:10.1155/2017/8318751


Jauniaux, E., et al. (2019). Placenta previa and placenta accrete: diagnosis and management. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecology 126(1), e1-e48. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.15306


Kollman, M., Gaulhofer, J., Lang, U., Klaritsch, P. (2016). Placenta praevia: incidence, risk factors and outcome. Journal of Maternal Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 29(9), 1395-1398. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2015.1049152


Matthews, K. C., Anderson, S., Chasen, S. T. (2019). Pregnancy outcomes in women with incidentally detected unicornuate uterus. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 220(1), S225-S226. doi: 10.1016/j.ajob.2018.11.344


Silver, R. M. (2015). Abnormal placentation: placenta previa, vasa previa, and placenta accreta. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 126(3), 654-688. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001005


Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine & Gyamfi-Bannerman, C. (2018). Society for maternal-fetal medicine consult series #44: Management of bleeding in the late preterm period. Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, 44, B2-B8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.10.019


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Polymorphic Eruption of Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). Skin conditions during pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Patient-Education-Pamphlets/Files/Skin-Conditions-During-Pregnancy


Casanova, R., Chuang, A., Goepfert, A. R., Hueppchen, N. A., & Weiss, P. M. (2019). Beckmann & Ling’s Obstetrics and Gynecology. (8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.


Cunningham, F. G., Leveno, K. J., Bloom, S. L., Dashe, J. S., Hoffman, B. L., Casey, B. M., & Spong, C. Y. (2018). Williams Obstetrics. (25th ed.). McGraw-Hill Medical.


King, T. L., Bruker, M. C., Kriebs, J. M., Fahey, J. O., Gegor, C. L. (2018). Varney’s Midwifery. (6th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.


Pierson, J. C. (2020). Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1123725. .


Taylor, D., Pappo, E., & Aronson, I. K. (2016). Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy. Clinics in Dermatology. 34(3), 383-391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2016.02.011


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Postterm Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014, affirmed 2019). Practice Bulletin No.146: Management of late-term and postterm pregnancies. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 124, 390-396. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000452744.06088.48


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Postterm labor. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Wang, M., & Fontaine, P. (2014). Common questions about late-term and postterm pregnancy. American Family Physician, 90(3), 160-165. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0801/p160.html


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Preeclampsia, Eclampsia


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 202: Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 133(1), e1-e25. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003018


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). ACOG Committee Opinion No. 767: Emergent therapy for acute-onset, severe hypertension during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 133(2), e174-e180. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003075


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Preeclampsia, Eclampsia. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.


National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2017). Preeclampsia and eclampsia. https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/preeclampsia


Ross, M. (2019). Eclampsia. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/253960-overview#a1


United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2017). What causes preeclampsia and eclampsia? https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/preeclampsia/conditioninfo/causes


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Preterm Labor


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). Practice Bulletin No. 171: Management of preterm labor. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 128(4), e155-e164. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001711


American Pregnancy Association. (2019). Premature labor. https://americanpregnancy.org/labor-and-birth/premature-labor/


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Preterm birth. https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pretermbirth.htm


Ross, M. (2018). Preterm Labor. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/260998-overview#a1


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Spontaneous Abortion


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). Practice Bulletin No. 200: Early pregnancy loss. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 132(5), e197-e207. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/practice-bulletin/articles/2018/11/early-pregnancy-loss


BMJ Publishing Group. (2018). Miscarriage. BMJ Best Practice. http://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-gb/666


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Spontaneous abortion. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Puscheck, E. (2018). Early pregnancy loss. Medscape. https://reference.medscape.com/article/266317-overview


Sapra, K. J., Joseph, K. S., Galea, S., Bates, L. M., Louis, G. M., & Ananth, C. V. (2017). Signs and symptoms of early pregnancy loss. Reproductive Sciences, 24(4), 502-513. doi:10.1177/1933719116654994


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Substance Use Disorder


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Committee Opinion No. 711. Opioid use and opioid use disorder in pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric-Practice/Opioid-Use-and-Opioid-Use-Disorder-in-Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Committee Opinion No. 722. Marijuana use during pregnancy and lactation. https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric-Practice/Marijuana-Use-During-Pregnancy-and-Lactation


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing.


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Substance use disorder in pregnancy. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Saia, K. A., Schiff, D., Wachman E. M., Mehta, P., Vilkins, A., Sia, M., Bagley, S. (2016). Caring for pregnant women with opioid use disorder in the USA: expanding and improving treatment. Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports, 5(3), 257-263. doi: 10.1007/s13669-016-0168-9


Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Umbilical Cord Prolapse


Ahmed, W. A., Hamdy, M. A. (2018). Optimal management of umbilical cord prolapse. International Journal of Women’s Health, 10, 459-465. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S130879


Boushra, M., Stone, A., & Rathbun, K.M. (2019). Umbilical cord prolapse. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK542241/


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Umbilical cord prolapse. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Adolescent Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). ACOG Committee on Adolescent Healthcare: Committee Opinion No. 699. Adolescent pregnancy, contraception, and sexual activity. https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Adolescent-Health-Care/Adolescent-Pregnancy-Contraception-and-Sexual-Activity


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Healthcare providers and teen pregnancy prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/health-care-providers/index.htm


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Teen pregnancy. Improving contraceptive access: tools for providers. https://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/health-care-providers/improving-contraceptive-access.html


Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B. E., & Osterman, M. J. K. (2019). Births in the United States, 2018. National Vital Statistics Report, 346. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db346.htm


U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2019). Trends in teen pregnancy and childbearing. https://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/adolescent-development/reproductive-health-and-teen-pregnancy/teen-pregnancy-and-childbearing/trends/index.html


Postpartum Care


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). Committee opinion No. 757: Screening for perinatal depression. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 132(5), e208-e212. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002927


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). Patient resources: Postpartum depression. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Postpartum-Depression


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Postpartum depression. In Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Association.


Food and Drug Administration. (n.d.). Zulresso highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2019/211371lbl.pdf


Haim, A., Albin-Brooks, C., Sherer, M., Mills, E., & Leuner, B. (2016). The effects of gestational stress and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant treatment on structural plasticity in the postpartum brain. A translational model for postpartum depression. Hormones and Behavior 77, 125-131. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.05.005


Hallgren, M. (2016). Exercise and internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for depression. Multicenter randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48(383). DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.115.177576


Molyneaux, E., Telesia, L., Henshaw, C., Boath, E., Bradley, E., & Howard, L. (2018). Antidepressants for preventing postnatal depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, Art. No.: CD004363. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004363.pub3


National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). Perinatal depression. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/postpartum-depression-facts/index.shtml


O’Connor, E., Rossom, R., Henninger, M., Groom, H. C., & Burda, B. U. (2016). Primary care screening for and treatment of depression in pregnant and postpartum women: Evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Journal of the American Medical Association 315(4), 388-406. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.18948


Stewart, D. E., & Vigod, S. N. (2019). Postpartum depression: pathophysiology, treatment, and emerging therapeutics. Annual Review of Medicine 2019, (70), 183-196. doi:10.1146/annurev-med-041217-011106


Lactation: Physiology of Lactation


Davis, T. J. (2020). Physiology, lactation. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499981/


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Physiology of lactation. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Wagner, C. L. (2015). Human milk and lactation. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1835675-overview


Lactation: Nutrition During Lactation


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2020). Breastfeeding. https://www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/Breastfeeding/Pages/AAP-Policy-on-Breastfeeding.aspx


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2012). Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3), 827-841. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-3552


Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. (2015). AWHONN position statement: Breastfeeding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 44, 83-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/1552-6909.12530


Bzikowska-Jura, A., Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, A., Olędzka, G., Szostak-Węgierek, D., Weker, H., Wesołowska, A. (2018). Maternal nutrition and body composition during breastfeeding: association with human milk composition. Nutrients, 10(10):1379. doi:10.3390/nu10101379


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Mercury. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/environmental-exposures/mercury.html


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Nutrition during lactation. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Kominiarek, M. A., & Rajan, P. (2016). Nutrition recommendations in pregnancy and lactation. The Medical Clinics of North America, 100(6), 1199-1215. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2016.06.004


Breastfeeding: Deciding Whether to Breastfeed


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2012). Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3), 827-841. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-3552


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2017). Donor human milk for the high risk-infant: preparation, safety and usage options in the United States. Journal of Pediatrics, 139, 1-6. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3440


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). Committee Opinion No. 756. Optimizing support for breastfeed as part of obstetric practice. ACOG Obstetrics & Gynecology, 132:e187-96. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002890


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist. (2017). Committee Opinion No. 722. Marijuana use during pregnancy and lactation. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 130:e205-e209. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002354


Bartick, M. C., Jegier, B. J., Green, B. D., Schwarz, E. B., Reinhold, A. G, & Stuebe, A. M. (2016). Disparities in breastfeeding: Impact on maternal and child health outcomes and costs. The Journal of Pediatrics, 181, 49-55. doi: dx.doi.org10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.10.028


Boone, K. M., Geraghty, S. R., & Keim, S. A. (2016). Feeding at the breast and expressed milk feedings: associations with otitis media and diarrhea in infants. The Journal of Pediatrics, 174, 118-125. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.04.006


Boquien, C. (2018). Human milk: An ideal food for nutrition of preterm newborn. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 6. doi: 10.3389/fped.2018.00295


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Breastfeeding: Contraindication to breastfeeding or feeding expressed breast milk to infants. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/Contraindications-to-breastfeeding.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Breastfeeding report card: United States. 2018. Atlanta GA: CDC. Retrieved September 23, 2019 from https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/pdf/2018breastfeedingreportcard.pdf


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Vaccinations: Vaccination safety for breastfeeding mothers. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/vaccinations-medications-drugs/vaccinations.html


Chai, Y., Nandia, A., & Heymann, J. (2018). Does extending the duration of legislated paid maternity leave improved breastfeeding practices? Evidence from 38 low-income and middle-income countries. BMJ Global Health, 3(5) e001032. Doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001032

Donovan, S. A. (2019). Paid family leave in the United States. Congressional Research Service. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R44835.pdf


Grummer-Strawn, L. M., & Rollins, N. (2015). Summarising the health effects of breastfeeding. Acta Paediatrica, 104, 1-2. doi:10.111/apa.13136


Lodge, C. J., Tan, D. J., Lau, M., Dai, X., Tham, R., Lowe, A. J…. & Dharmage, S. C. (2015). Breastfeeding and asthma and allergies: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Paediatrica, 104, 38-53. doi:10.111/apa.13132


Meek, J. Y., & Hatcher, A. J. (2017). The breastfeeding-friendly pediatric office practice. Pediatrics, 139(5), doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-0647


Mosca, F. & Gianni, M. L. (2017). Human milk: composition and health benefits. La Pediatria Medica e Chirugica, 39(155), 47-52. doi: 10.48/pmc.2017.155


Nguyen, B., Jin, K., & Ding, D. (2017). Breastfeeding and maternal cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes: a systematic review. PloS One, 12(11), e0187923. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187923


Sriraman, N. K. & Kellams, A. (2016). Breastfeeding: What are the barriers? Why women struggle to achieve their goals. Journal of Women’s Health, 25(7), 714-722. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2014.5059


Victoria, C. G, Bahl, R., Barros, A. J., Franca, G.V., Horton, S., Krasevec, J.,… & Rollins, N. C. (2016). Breastfeeding in the 21st century: Epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect. The Lancet, 387(10017), 475-490. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01024-7


Wallby, T., Lagerberg, D., & Magnusson, M. (2017). Relationship between breastfeeding and early childhood obesity: Results of a prospective longitudinal study from birth to 4 years. Breastfeeding Medicine, 12(1), 48-53. doi: 10.1089/bfm.20160124


Wu, X., Jackson, R. T., Khan, S. A., Ahuja, J.,& Pehrsson, P. R. (2018). Human milk nutrient composition in the United States: Current knowledge, challenges, and research needs. Current Development in Nutrition, 2(7), nzy025. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzy025


Breastfeeding: Alcohol Use During Breastfeeding


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2019). Alcohol and breast milk. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/breastfeeding/Pages/Alcohol-Breast-Milk.aspx


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). Patient Resources. Breastfeeding your baby. https://www.acog.org/patient-resources/faqs/labor-delivery-and-postpartum-care/breastfeeding-your-baby


Anderson, A. O. (2018). Alcohol use during breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine, 13(5), 315-317. doi:10.1089/bfm.218.0053


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Breastfeeding: Alcohol. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/vaccinations-medications-drugs/alcohol.html


Gibson, L., & Porter, M. (2018). Drinking or smoking while breastfeeding and later cognition in children. Pediatrics, 42(2), e20174266. doi: 10.1542/peds2017-4266


Greomer, T. (2019). Alcohol and breasting, a review of the issues. World Nutrition, 10(1), 63-88. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26596/wn.201910163-88


Jansson, L. M. (2018). Maternal alcohol used during lactation and child development. Pediatrics, 142(2), e20181377. doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-1377


LactMed Drug and Lactation Database. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK501922/


Breastfeeding: Breast Care During Breastfeeding


Dennis, C. L., Jackson, K., & Watson, J. (2014). Interventions for treating painful nipples among breastfeeding women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12), CD007366. Doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007366.pub2


Eshgizade, M., Moghaddam, M. B., Moghaddam, H. M., Mahmodian, A. S., & Mesbah, M. (2015). A comparison of the efficacy of olive oil, aloe vera extract and breast milk on healing breast fissure in the breastfeeding women. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, 5, 85. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A435637113/HRCA?u=tel_p_memshel&sid=HRCA&xid=cdaec892


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Breast care during breastfeeding. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Lebedevs, T., Kendrick, C. (2019). Pharmacological management of common lactation problems. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 49(2). https://doi.org/10.1002/jppr.1561


Smith, E. (2016). If it's natural, why does it hurt? Examining the reasons mom may feel pain with breastfeeding. International Journal of Childbirth Education, 31(4). https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A472004424/HRCA?u=tel_p_memshel&sid=HRCA&xid=db1420b5


Breastfeeding: Breastfeeding Techniques


American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Committee Opinion 756: Optimizing support for breastfeeding as part of obstetric practice. https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric-Practice/Optimizing-Support-for-Breastfeeding-as-Part-of-Obstetric-Practice


American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Committee Opinion 570: Breastfeeding in underserved women: increasing initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Health-Care-for-Underserved-Women/Breastfeeding-in-Underserved-Women-Increasing-Initiation-and-Continuation-of-Breastfeeding


American College of Nurse Midwives. (2016). ACM Position Statement: Breastfeeding. http://www.midwife.org/acnm/files/ACNMLibraryData/UPLOADFILENAME/000000000248/Breastfeeding-statement-Feb-2016.pdf


Bigelow, A., Power, M., Gillis, D., Maclellan-Peters, J., Alex, M., McDonald, C. (2014). Breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact, and mother infant interactions over infants' first three months. Infant Mental Health Journal, 35, 51-62. DOI: 10.1002/imhj.21424


DiCioccio, H., Ady, C., Bena, J., Albert, N. (2019.) Initiative to improve exclusive breastfeeding by delaying the newborn bath. Initiative to improve exclusive breastfeeding by delaying the newborn bath. JOGNN, 48(2), 189-196. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jogn.2018.12.008


Henshaw, E., Fried, R., Siskind, E., Newhouse, L., Cooper. M. (2015). Breastfeeding self-efficacy, mood and breastfeeding outcomes among primiparous women. Journal of Human Lactation, 31(3), 511-518. DOI: 10.1177/0890334415579654


La Leche League International. (2019). Breastfeeding Info: Positioning. https://www.llli.org/breastfeeding-info/positioning/


World Health Organization. (2018). WHO recommendation on bathing and other immediate postnatal care of the newborn. Retrieved December 18, from https://extranet.who.int/rhl/topics/newborn-health/care-newborn-infant/who-recommendation-bathing-and-other-immediate-postnatal-care-newborn


World Health Organization. (n.d.). Ten steps to successful breastfeeding. https://www.who.int/activities/promoting-baby-friendly-hospitals/ten-steps-to-successful-breastfeeding


Breastfeeding: Determining Adequate Breast Milk Intake


Jensen, D., Wallace, S., Kelsay, P. (1994). LATCH: A breastfeeding charting system and documentation tool. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 23(1), 27-32. https://doi-org.ezhost.utrgv.edu/10.1111/j.1552-6909.1994.tb01847.x


La Leche League International. (n.d.). Is my baby getting enough milk? https://www.llli.org/breastfeeding-info/is-baby-getting-enough/


La Leche League Great Britain. (n.d.). Signs of effective feeding in the early days. https://www.laleche.org.uk/signs-effective-feeding-early-days-2/


Neifert, M. (2004). Breastmilk transfer: positioning, latch-on, and screening for problems in milk transfer. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 47(3), 656-675. DOI: 10.1097/01.grf.0000136183.12304.96


Neifert, M., Bunik, M. (2013). Overcoming clinical barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Pediatric Clinics of America, 60, 115-145.


Breastfeeding: Medication Use by Nursing Mothers


American Academy of Family Physicians. (2017). Breastfeeding (Policy Statement). https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/breastfeeding.html


American Academy of Pediatrics. (n.d.). Breastfeeding and medications. https://www.aap.org/en-us/Pages/Breastfeeding-and-Medication.aspx


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Contraindications to breastfeeding or feeding expressed breast milk to infants. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/contraindications-to-breastfeeding.html


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Prescription and medication use. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/vaccinations-medications-drugs/prescription-medication-use.html


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Vaccinations, medications, & drugs. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/vaccinations-medications-drugs/index.html


Food and Drug Administration. (2014). Pregnancy and lactation labeling rule. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/labeling-information-drug-products/pregnancy-and-lactation-labeling-drugs-final-rule


Hale, T. (2019). Hale’s Medications and Mothers’ Milk. Springer Publishing.


Korpela, K., Salonen, A., Virta, L. J., Kekkonen, R. A., de Vos, W. M. (2016). Association of early-life antibiotic use and protective effects of breastfeeding: role of the intestinal microbiota. JAMA Pediatrics,170 (8), 750-757. DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.0585


La Leche League International. (2019). Over-the-counter (OTC) medications and breastfeeding. https://www.llli.org/over-the-counter-otc-medications-and-breastfeeding-2/


La Leche League International. (n.d.). Medications. A quick guide for parents. https://www.llli.org/breastfeeding-info/medications-quick-guide-parents/


National Library of Medicine. (n.d.) Drugs and lactation database (LactMed). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK501922/


Breastfeeding: Smoking by the Nursing Mother


American Academy of Family Physicians. (2019). Pharmacologic product guide: FDA-approved medications for smoking cessation. https://www.aafp.org/dam/AAFP/documents/patient_care/tobacco/pharmacologic-guide.pdf


Banderali, D., Martelli, A., Landi, M., Moretti, F., Betti, F., Radaelli, G., Verfuci, E. (2015). Short- and long-term health effects of parental tobacco smoking during pregnancy and lactation: a descriptive review. Journal of Translational Medicine, 13, 327. doi: 10.1186/s12967-015-0690-y


Bernabe, E., MacRitchie, H., Longbottom, C., Pitts, N. B., & Sabbah, W. (2017). Birth weight, breastfeeding, maternal smoking and caries trajectories. Journal of Dental Research. 96(2) 171-178. DOI: 10.1177/0022034516678181


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Tobacco and e-cigarettes. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/vaccinations-medications-drugs/tobacco-and-e-cigarettes.html


Napierala, M., Mazela, J., Allen, T., & Florek, E. (2015). Tobacco smoking and breastfeeding: Effort on the lactation process, breast milk composition and infant development. A critical review. Environmental Research. 151, 321-338. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.002


Napierala, M., Merritt, T. A., Miechowicz, I., Mielnik, K., Mazela, J., & Florek, E. (2019). The effect of maternal tobacco smoking and second-hand tobacco smoke exposure on human milk oxidant-antioxidant status. Environmental Research. 170, 110-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.12.017


National Institute of Drug Abuse. (2020). What is the scope of tobacco use and its cost to society? https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/tobacco-nicotine-e-cigarettes/what-scope-tobacco-use-its-cost-to-society


Breastfeeding: Storage of Breast Milk


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Storage and preparation of breast milk. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/pdf/preparation-of-breast-milk_H.pdf


Eglash, A., Simon, L., & The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2017). ABM clinical protocol #8: Human milk storage information for home use for full-term infant, revised 2017. Breastfeeding Medicine, 12(7), 390-395. doi:10.1089/bfm.2017.29047.aje


Food and Drug Administration. (n.d.). Once baby arrives. Food safety for moms to be. https://www.fda.gov/food/people-risk-foodborne-illness/once-baby-arrives-food-safety-moms-be


Lawrence, R. A., & Lawrence, R. M. (2016). The collection and storage of human milk and human milk banking. In R. A. Lawrence & R. M. Lawrence (Eds.). Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Profession. (8th ed.). (pp.712-742). Elsevier.


Breastfeeding: Vitamin Supplementation of Breastfed Infants


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2012). Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3), 827-841. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-3552


Finn, K., Callen, C., Bhatia, J., Reidy, K., Bechard, L. J., & Carvalho, R. (2017). Importance of dietary sources of iron in infants and toddlers: Lessons from the FITS study. Nutrients, 9(7), 733. doi: https://doi.org/10.2290/nu9070733


Mosca, F. & Gianni, M. L. (2017). Human milk: Composition and health benefits. La Pediatria Medica e Chirugica, 39(155), 47-52. doi: 10.48/pmc.2017.155


Moyer, V. A. (2014). Prevention of dental caries in children from birth through age 5: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. recommendation statement. Pediatrics, 133, 1102-1111. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-0483


Rozier, R. G., Adair, S., Graham, F., Iafolla, T., Kingman, A., Kohn, W., ... & Strock, S. (2010). Evidence-based clinical recommendations on the prescription of dietary fluoride supplements for caries prevention: a report of the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 141(12), 1480-1489.


Taylor, S. N., & The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2018). ABM Clinical Protocol #29: Iron, zinc, and vitamin D supplementation during breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine, 13(6), 398-404. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2018.29095.snt


Toxnet: Toxicology Data Network. (n.d.). Drugs and lactation database (LactMed). https://toxnet.lm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/lmed.htmact


Wu, X., Jackson, R. T., Khan, S. A., Ahuja, J., & Pehrsson, P. R. (2018). Human milk nutrient composition in the United States: Current knowledge, challenges, and research needs. Current Development in Nutrition, 2(7), nzy025. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzy025


Breastfeeding: Weaning From Breastfeeding


American Academy of Family Physicians. (2017). Breastfeeding (policy statement). https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/breastfeeding.html


Charlick, S., Pincombe, J., McKellar, L., Gordan, A. (2019). The Private Journey: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Exclusive Breastfeeding. Women Birth, 32(1), e34-e42. doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2018.03.003


Kellams, A., Harrel, C., Omage, S., Gregory, C., Rosen-Carole, C., and Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2017). ABM clinical protocol #3: supplementary feedings in the healthy term breastfed neonate, Revised. Breastfeeding Medicine, 12(4). https://doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2017.29038.ajk


La Leche League International. (2019). Weaning: How To. https://www.llli.org/breastfeeding-info/weaning-how-to/


Stearns, C. (2011). Cautionary Tales About Extended Breastfeeding and Weaning. Health Care for Women International, 32, 538–554. DOI: 10.1080/07399332.2010.540051


Taylor, S. N. (2018). ABM Clinical Protocol #29: Iron, zinc, and vitamin D supplementation during breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine,13(6), 398-404. DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2018.29095.snt


Torquato I., Lima A., Neto V., Reichert, P. (2018). Standard for breastfeeding of children. Journal of Nursing, 12(10), 2514-2521. https://doi.org/10.5205/1981-8963-v12i10a237050p2514-2521-2018


World Health Organization. (2019). Breastfeeding. https://www.who.int/topics/breastfeeding/en/


Problems Associated With Breastfeeding: Breast Engorgement


Alekseev, N. P., Vladimir, I. I., & Nadezhda, T. E. (2015). Pathological postpartum breast engorgement: Prediction, prevention, and resolution. Breastfeeding Medicine, 10(4), 203-208. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2014.0047


Berens, P., Brodribb, W. & The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2016). ABM clinical protocol #20: Engorgement. Breastfeeding Medicine, 11, 159-163. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2016.29008.pjb


Gresh, A., Robinson, K., Thornton, C. P., & Plesko, C. (2019). Caring for women experiencing breast engorgement: A case report. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health. doi:10.1111/jmwh.13011


Wong, B. B., Chan, Y. H., Leow, M. Q. H., Lu, Y., Chong, Y. S., Koh, S. S. L., & He, H. (2017). Application of cabbage leaves compared to gel packs for mothers with breast engorgement: Randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 76, 92-99. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2017.08.014



Problems Associated With Breastfeeding: Breast Milk Leakage


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Leaking breasts during lactation. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Liebert, M. A. (2016). ABM Clinical Protocol #20: Engorgement, Revised 2016. Breastfeeding Medicine, 11(4), 159–163. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2008.9988


Problems Associated With Breastfeeding: Candida Infection of the Nipples


Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2016). ABM clinical protocol #26. Persistent pain with breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine, 11(2). DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2016.29002.pjb


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Candida infection of nipples. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Lawrence, R. & Lawrence R. (2015). Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Professional. (8th ed.). Elsevier.


Taylor, M., Raja, A. (2020). Oral candidiasis (thrush). StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK545282/


Problems Associated With Breastfeeding: Flat or Inverted Nipples


Bouchet-Horwitz, J. (2011). The use of supple cups for flat, retracting, and inverted nipples. Clinical Lactation, 2-3, 30-33.


Hollier, A. (Ed.). Flat or inverted nipples. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


La Leche League. (n.d.). Inverted and flat nipples. https://www.llli.org/breastfeeding-info/inverted-flat-nipples/


Problems Associated With Breastfeeding: Jaundice in Breastfed Infants


Bratton, S., Cantu, R. M. (2020). Breast milk jaundice. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537334/


Deshpande, P.G. (2017). Breast milk jaundice. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/973629-overview#a4


Fisherman, V. J., Maisels, M. J., & the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2017). ABM Clinical Protocol 22: Guidelines for the management of jaundice in the breastfeeding infant 35 weeks or more of gestation-revised 2017. Breastfeeding Medicine, 12(5). doi:10.1089/bfm.2017.29042.vjf


Muchowski, K. E. (2014). Evaluation and treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. American Family Physician, 89(11), 873-878. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0601/p873.html


Pace, E. J., Brown, C. M., DeGeorge, K. C. (2019). Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: An evidence-based approach. The Journal of Family Practice, 68(1), E4-E11. https://www.mdedge.com/familymedicine/article/193251/pediatrics/neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia-evidence-based-approach


Problems Associated With Breastfeeding: Mastitis


Amir, L. H. (2014). Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Clinical Protocol #4: Mastitis. Breastfeeding Medicine, 9(5), 239-243. https://abm.memberclicks.net/assets/DOCUMENTS/PROTOCOLS/4-mastitis-protocol-english.pdf


Amir, L. H., Trupin, S., Kvist, L. J. (2014). Diagnosis and treatment of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Journal of Human Lactation, 30(1), 10-13. doi: 10.1177/0890334413516065


Cullinane, M., Amir, L. H., Donath, S. M., Garland, S. M., Tabrizi, S. N., Payne, M. S., & Bennett, C. M. (2015). Determinants of mastitis in women in the CASTLE study: a cohort study. BMC Family Practice, 16(181). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12875-015-0396-5


Lebedevs, T., Kendrick, C. (2019). Pharmacological management of common lactation problems. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 49(2). https://doi.org/10.1002/jppr.1561


Leung, S. S. (2016). Breast pain in lactating mothers. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 4(22), 341-346. doi: 10.12809/hkmj154762


Miller, A. C. (2019). Mastitis empiric therapy. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2028354-overview


Problems Associated With Breastfeeding: Plugged Milk Duct


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Plugged milk duct. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Strong, G. D. (2011). Provider Management and Support for Breastfeeding Pain. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 40(6), 753-764. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6909.2011.01303.x


Witt, A. M., Bolman, M., Kredit, S., & Vanic, A. (2016). Therapeutic breast massage in lactation for the management of engorgement, plugged ducts, and mastitis. Journal of Human Lactation, 32(1), 123-131. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890334415619439


Zhao, C., Tang, R., Wang, J., Guan, X., Zheng, J., Hu, J., … Song, C. (2014). Six-Step recanalization manual therapy: a novel method for treating plugged ducts in lactating women. Journal of Human Lactation, 30(3), 324-330. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890334414532314


Problems Associated With Breastfeeding: Nipple Soreness


Berens, P., Eglash, A., Malloy, M., Steube, A. M., & the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2016). ABM clinical protocol #26: Persistent pain with breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine, 11(2), 1-8. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2016.29002.pjb


Lawrence, R. A., & Lawrence, R. M. (2016). Practical management of the mother-infant nursing couple. In R. A. Lawrence & R. M. Lawrence (Eds.), Breastfeeding: A guide for the medical profession. (8th ed.). (pp. 230-284). Elsevier.


Wambach, K. & Riordan, J. (2019). Breastfeeding and Human Lactation. Jones and Bartlett.

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