Reproductive Health

Contraception

Casey, F. E. (2020). Contraception. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/258507

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Contraception. https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/contraception/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/contraception/mmwr/mec/summary.html

Hatcher, R.A. (Ed.). (2018). Contraceptive Technology. (21st ed.). Managing Contraception, LLC.

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Contraception. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Kaneshiro, B., & Aeby, T. (2010). Long-term safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of the intrauterine Copper T-380A contraceptive device. International Journal of Women's Health, 2, 211-220. doi:10.2147/ijwh.s6914

World Health Organization. (2015). Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. (5th ed.). WHO.

World Health Organization. (2018). Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers. WHO.

Preconception Care

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Good health before pregnancy: prepregnancy care. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Good-Health-Before-Pregnancy-Prepregnancy-Care

Arluck, J. C. (2018). Preconception care for the general ob/gyn. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 61(1), 62-71. DOI: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000338

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Before pregnancy. https://www.cdc.gov/preconception/women.html

Clark, E. (2017). Pregnancy and prenatal care. In Primary Care: A Collaborative Practice. (5th ed.) (pp. 65-78). Elsevier.

Delcore, L. (2016). Preconception care of the obese woman. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 59(1) , 129-139. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000182

Johnson, C. T. (2020). The John Hopkins Manual of Gynecology and Obstetrics. (6th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Prenatal Care

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Committee on Obstetric Practice: Committee Opinion No. 797: Prevention of Group B Streptococcal early-onset disease in newborns. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2020/02/prevention-of-group-b-streptococcal-early-onset-disease-in-newborns

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Routine tests during pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/patient-resources/faqs/pregnancy/routine-tests-during-pregnancy

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Committee Opinion No. 752: Prenatal and perinatal human immunodeficiency virus testing. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 132(3), e138-e142. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002825

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). ACOG Committee Opinion No. 717: Sulfonamides, nitrofurantoin and risk of birth defects. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 130(3), e150-e152. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002300

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Academy of Pediatrics. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care. (8th ed.). ACOG.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 162: Prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 127(5), e108-e122. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001405

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). ACOG Committee Opinion No. 650: Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 126(6), p. 1326-1327.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2009). Screening for hepatitis B virus infection in pregnancy: U.S. Preventive Services task force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(12), 869-873.

Physiologic and Psychologic Changes of Pregnancy

American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care. (8th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics.

Brown, H.D. (2018). Physiology of pregnancy. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/approach-to-the-pregnant-woman-and-prenatal-care/physiology-of-pregnancy

Hall, M. E., George, E. M., Granger, J. P. (2011). The heart during pregnancy. Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition), 64(11), 1045-1050. doi: 10.1016/j.recesp.2011.07.009

LoMauro, A., Aliverti, A. (2015). Respiratory physiology of pregnancy. Breathe, 11(4), 297-301. doi: 10.1183/20734735.008615

Sanghavi, M. (2014). Cardiovascular physiology of pregnancy. Circulation, 130, 1003-1008. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.009029

Soma-Pillay, P., et al. (2016). Physiological changes in pregnancy. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, 27(2), 89-94. doi: 10.5830/CVJA-2016-02

Somani, S. (2015). Pregnancy special considerations. Physiologic ocular changes occurring during pregnancy. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1229740-overview#a2

Medication Use in Pregnancy

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Guidelines and recommendations for treating and managing health conditions during pregnancy. https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/meds/treatingfortwo/treatment-guidelines.html

National Institutes of Health. (2020). LactMed: Drugs and lactation database. https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/lactmed.htm

Pernia, S., DeMaagd, G. (2016). The new pregnancy and lactation labeling rule. Pharmacy & Therapeutics, 41(11), 713-715. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5083079/

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2014). Content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products; requirements for pregnancy and lactation labeling. Federal Register. https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2014/12/04/2014-28241/content-and-format-of-labeling-for-human-prescription-drug-and-biological-products-requirements-for

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2016). Pregnancy and lactation labeling (drugs) final rule. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DevelopmentResources/Labeling/ucm093307.htm

Immunization During Pregnancy

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Guidelines for vaccinating pregnant women. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pregnancy/hcp-toolkit/guidelines.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Maternal vaccination coverage. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pregnancy/hcp-toolkit/maternal-vaccination-coverage.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Why maternal vaccines are important. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pregnancy/hcp-toolkit/important-maternal-vaccines.html

Johnson, C. T. (2020). The Johns Hopkins Manual of Gynecology and Obstetrics. (6th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Kauschinger, E. (2016). Primary Care: A Collaborative Practice. (5th ed.) Elsevier.

Nutrition and Exercise in Pregnancy

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Nutrition during pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/patient-resources/faqs/pregnancy/nutrition-during-pregnancy

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Physical activity and exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 135, e178-e188. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2020/04/physical-activity-and-exercise-during-pregnancy-and-the-postpartum-period

Buttaro, T. M., Trybulski, J., Polgar-Bailey, P., Sandberg-Cook, J. (Eds.). (2017). Pregnancy and prenatal care. In Primary Care: A Collaborative Practice. (5th ed.) Elsevier.

Delcore, L. (2016). Preconception care of the obese woman. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 59(1), 129-139. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000182

Johnson, C. T. (2020). The John Hopkins Manual of Gynecology and Obstetrics. (6th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Assessment of Fetal Well-Being: Invasive Prenatal Testing

American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care (8th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). Practice Bulletin No. 145: Antepartum fetal surveillance. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 124(1), 182-92. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000451759.90082.7b

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). Practice Bulletin No. 16: Screening for fetal aneuploidy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 127(5), 979-81. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001439

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). Practice Bulletin No. 162: Prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 127(5), e108-122. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001405

Casanova, R., Chuang, A., Goepfert, A. R., Hueppchen, N. A., & Weiss, P. M. (2019). Beckmann & Ling’s Obstetrics and Gynecology. (8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Cunningham, F. G., Leveno, K. J., Bloom, S. L., Dashe, J. S., Hoffman, B. L., Casey, B. M., & Spong, C. Y. (2018). Williams Obstetrics. (25th ed.). McGraw-Hill Medical.

Assessment of Fetal Well-Being: Biophysical Profile of the Fetus

American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care. (8th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014). Practice Bulletin No. 145: Antepartum fetal surveillance. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 124(1), 182-192. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000451759.90082.7b

Casanova, R., Chuang, A., Goepfert, A. R., Hueppchen, N. A., & Weiss, P. M. (2019). Beckmann & Ling’s Obstetrics and Gynecology. (8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Cunningham, F. G., Leveno, K. J., Bloom, S. L., Dashe, J. S., Hoffman, B .L., Casey, B. M., & Spong, C. Y. (2018). Williams Obstetrics. (25th ed.). McGraw-Hill Medical.

Assessment of Fetal Well-Being: Maternal Assessment of Fetal Activity

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014). Practice Bulletin No. 145: Antepartum fetal surveillance. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 124(1), 182-192. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000451759.90082.7b

Bryant, J., Jamil, R. T., & Thistle, J. (2020). Fetal Movement. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470566/

Lyndon, A. & Ali, L. U. (2015). Antenatal fetal assessment and testing. In Treanor, C. M. Fetal Health Monitoring: Principles and practices (pp. 286-289). (5th ed.). Kendall Hunt.

Mangesi, L., Hofmeyr, G. J., Smith, V., & Smyth, R. M. D. (2015). Fetal movement counting for assessment of fetal wellbeing (review). Cochrane Database. https://www.cochrane.org/CD004909/PREG_fetal-movement-counting-assessment-fetal-wellbeing

Olagbuji, B. N., Igbarumah, S., Akintayo, A. A., Olifinbiyi, B. A., Oduloju, P. O., & Alao, O. O. (2014). Maternal understanding of fetal movement in the third trimester: a means for fetal monitoring and reducing stillbirth. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 17(4), 489-494. doi: 10.4103/1119.3077.134049

World Health Organization. (2016). WHO recommendation on daily fetal movement. https://extranet.who.int/rhl/topics/preconception-pregnancy-childbirth-and-postpartum-care/antenatal-care/who-recommendation-daily-fetal-movement-counting

Assessment of Fetal Well-Being: Nonstress Testing

American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care (8th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014; affirmed 2019). Practice Bulletin No. 145: Antepartum fetal surveillance. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2014 Jul;124(1):182-92. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000451759.90082.7b

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Nonstress testing. In: Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Assessment of Fetal Well-Being: Ultrasound of the Fetus

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Committee Opinion No. 723: Guidelines for diagnostic imaging during pregnancy and lactation. Obstetrics & Gynecology.130(4): e210-6. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2017/10/guidelines-for-diagnostic-imaging-during-pregnancy-and-lactation

American Pregnancy Association. (n.d.). Ultrasound: sonogram. https://americanpregnancy.org/prenatal-testing/ultrasound/

Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Initiative to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure from medical imaging. https://www.fda.gov/radiation-emitting-products/radiation-safety/initiative-reduce-unnecessary-radiation-exposure-medical-imaging

Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Ultrasound Imaging. https://www.fda.gov/radiation-emitting-products/medical-imaging/ultrasound-imaging

Springer, S. (2018). Prenatal diagnosis and fetal therapy. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/936318-overview#a1

Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Ankle Edema

American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care. (8th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics

Afshan, B., Hameed, C., Morton, H., & and Moore, A. (2017). Improving health care response to cardiovascular disease in pregnancy and postpartum. California Department of Public Health. Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health Division. https://www.cmqcc.org/resources-toolkits/toolkits/improving-health-care-response-cardiovascular-disease-pregnancy-and

Bickley, L. S., & Szilagyi, P. G. (2016). Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. (12th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2019). Old's Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women’s Health Across the Lifespan. (11th ed.). Prentice Hall.

Druzin, M. L., Shields, L. E., Peterson, N. L., Cape, V. (2014). Preeclampsia toolkit: improving health care response to preeclampsia. California Department of Public Health. Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health Division. https://www.cmqcc.org/resources-tool-kits/toolkits/preeclampsia-toolkit

Swamy, G. K., Heine, P. H. (2018). Lower extremity edema during late pregnancy. Merck Manual Professional. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/symptoms-during-pregnancy/lower-extremity-edema-during-late-pregnancy

Tobah, Y. V. (2017). What causes ankle swelling during pregnancy, and what can I do about it? https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/swelling-during-pregnancy/faq-20058467

Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2019). Varney's Midwifery. (6th ed.). Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Backache

American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists. (2020). Patient Resources: back pain during pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Back-Pain-During-Pregnancy

Berber, M. A., Satilmis, I. G. (2020). Characteristics of low back pain in pregnancy. Risk factors and its effects on quality of life. Pain Management Nursing, S1524-9042(20), 30131-30134. doi: 10.1016/j.pmn.2020.05.001

Gregory, D. S., Wu, V. W., & Tuladhar, P. (2018). The pregnant patient: managing common acute medical problems. American Family Physician, 98(9), 595-602. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p595.html

Shah, S., Banh, E. T., Koury, K., Bhatia, G., Nandi, R. & Gulur, P. (2015). Pain management in pregnancy: multimodal approaches. Pain Research and Treatment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/987483

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Final Rule. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/labeling/pregnancy-and-lactation-labeling-drugs-final-rule

Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Constipation

American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists. (2014). Patient resources. Problems of the digestive system. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Problems-of-the-Digestive-System?IsMobileSet=false

Rungsiprakarn, P., Laopaiboon, M., Sangkomkamhang, U., Lumbiganon, P., Pratt, J. J. (2015). Interventions for treating constipation in pregnancy. Cochrane Library. https://www.cochrane.org/CD011448/PREG_interventions-treating-constipation-pregnancy

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Pregnancy and lactation labeling final rule. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/labeling/pregnancy-and-lactation-labeling-drugs-final-rule

Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Heartburn

American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists. (2014). Patient resources. Problems of the digestive system. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Problems-of-the-Digestive-System?IsMobileSet=false

Gregory, D. S., Wu, V. W., & Tuladhar, P. (2018). The pregnant patient: managing common acute medical problems. American Family Physician, 98(9), 595-602. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p595.html

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Pregnancy and lactation labeling (drugs) final rule. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/labeling/pregnancy-and-lactation-labeling-drugs-final-rule

Vazquez, J. C. (2015). Heartburn in pregnancy. BMJ Clinical Evidence. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4562453/pdf/2015-1411.pdf

Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Hemorrhoids

American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists. (2014). Patient resources. Problems of the digestive system. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Problems-of-the-Digestive-System?IsMobileSet=false

Mott, T., Latimer, K., Edwards, C. (2019). Hemorrhoids: diagnosis and treatment options. American Family Physician, 97(3), 172-179. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p172.html

Perry, K. R. (2019). Hemorrhoids. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/775407-overview

Shirah, B.H., et al. (2017). Hemorrhoids during pregnancy: sitz bath vs. anorectal cream: a comparative prospective study of two conservative treatment protocols. Women Birth, 31(4), e272-e277. doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2017.10.003.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Pregnancy and lactation labeling (drugs) final rule. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/labeling/pregnancy-and-lactation-labeling-drugs-final-rule

Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Leg Cramps

Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2015). Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women's Health Across the Lifespan. (10th ed.). Prentice Hall.

Gregory, D. S., Wu, V. W., & Tuladhar, P. (2018). The pregnant patient: managing common acute medical problems. American Family Physician, 98(9), 595-602. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p595.html

Zhou, K., West, H. M., Zhan, J., Xu, L., Li, W. (2015). Interventions for leg cramps in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (8), CD010655. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010655.pub2

Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Leukorrhea

American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care. (8th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics.

American Pregnancy Association. (2015). Vaginal discharge during pregnancy. http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-health/vaginal-discharge-during-pregnancy/

Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2015). Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women's Health Across the Lifespan. (10th ed.) Prentice Hall.

Kelsey, B. M. & Hagtalon-Ramos, J. (2020). Midwifery & Women’s Health Nurse Practitioner Certification Review Guide. (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.

Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2015). Varney's Midwifery. (6th ed.). Jones and Bartlett.

Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Nasal Congestion and Epistaxis

Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2015). Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women's Health Across the Lifespan. (10th ed.) Prentice Hall.

Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2018). Varney's Midwifery. (6th ed.). Jones and Bartlett.

Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Nausea and Vomiting

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 189: nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 131(1), e15-e30. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002456

American Pregnancy Association. (n.d.). Nausea help during pregnancy. https://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-concerns/nausea-during-pregnancy/

Duchesnay Pharmaceuticals. Bonjesta prescribing information. https://files.duchesnay.com/duchesnay-usa/bonjesta/bonjesta-prescribing-information.pdf

Duchesnay Pharmaceuticals. Diclegis prescribing information. https://files.duchesnay.com/duchesnay-usa/diclegis/diclegis-prescribing-information.pdf

Gregory, D. S., Wu, V. W., & Tuladhar, P. (2018). The pregnant patient: managing common acute medical problems. American Family Physician, 98(9), 595-602. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p595.html

Kreitzer, M. J., & Koithan, M. (Eds.). (2014). Integrative nursing management of nausea. In Integrative Nursing. (pp. 214-229). Oxford University Press.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Pregnancy and lactation labeling (drugs) final rule. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/labeling/pregnancy-and-lactation-labeling-drugs-final-rule

Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Round Ligament Pain

Gregory, D. S., Wu, V. W., & Tuladhar, P. (2018). The pregnant patient: managing common acute medical problems. American Family Physician, 98(9), 595-602. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p595.html

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Pregnancy and lactation labeling (drugs) final rule. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/labeling/pregnancy-and-lactation-labeling-drugs-final-rule

Zachariah, S. K., Fenn, M., Jacob, K., Arthungal, S. A., & Zachariah, S. A. (2019). Management of acute abdomen in pregnancy: current perspectives. International Journal of Women’s Health, 11, 119-134. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S151501

Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Urinary Frequency

Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2015). Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women's Health Across the Lifespan. (10th ed.) Prentice Hall.

Gregory, D. S., Wu, V.W., & Tuladhar, P. (2018). The pregnant patient: managing common acute medical problems. American Family Physician, 98(9), 595-602. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p595.html

Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2019). Varney's Midwifery. (6th ed.). Jones and Bartlett.

Common Discomforts of Pregnancy: Varicose Veins

American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists. (2018). Patient resources: skin conditions during pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Skin-Conditions-During-Pregnancy#varicose

Gavrilov, S. G. (2017). Vulvar varicosities: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. International Journal of Women’s Health (9), 463-475. https://dx.doi.org/10.2147%2FIJWH.S126165

Raetz, J., Wilson, M., & Collins, C. (2019). Varicose veins: diagnosis and treatment. American Family Physician, 99(11), 682-688. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p682.html

Sueyoshi, M., Clevenger, S., & Hart, E. (2018). Large vaginal varicosities in the setting of pregnancy without known hepatic or vascular risks: a case report and review of the literature. Case Reports in Obstetrics & Gynecology. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2394695

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Abruptio Placentae

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 188: Prelabor rupture of membranes. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 131(1):e1-e14. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002455

Deering, S. (2018). Abruptio Placentae. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/252810-overview#a1

Schmidt, P., Raines, D. (2019). Placental abruption (abruptio placentae). In: StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482335/

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Acute Cystitis

Ailes, E .C., Summers, A. D., Tran, E. T., Gilboa, S. M., Arnold, K. E., Meany-Delman, D., Reefhuis, J. (2018). Antibiotics dispensed to privately insured pregnant women with urinary tract infections—United States, 2014. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6701a4.htm?s_cid=mm6701a4_e

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Committee Opinion 717. Sulfonamides, nitrofurantoin, and risk of birth defects. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2017/09/sulfonamides-nitrofurantoin-and-risk-of-birth-defects

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Key findings: antibiotic treatments for urinary tract infections are commonly prescribed to pregnant women. https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/meds/treatingfortwo/features/kf-uti-antibiotic-treatments-pregnant-women.html

Johnson, K. (2017). Urinary tract infections in pregnancy treatment & management. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/452604-treatment

Kalinderi, K., Delkos, D., Kalinderis, M., Athanadiasis, A., Kalogiannidis I. (2018). Urinary tract infection during pregnancy: current concepts on a common multifaceted problem. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 6, 1-6. doi: 10.1080/01443615.2017.1370579

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Cervical Insufficiency

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014, affirmed 2019). ACOG Practice Bulletin No.142: Cerclage for the management of cervical insufficiency. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 123(2 Pt 1), 372-379. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000443276.68274.cc

Dulay, A. T. (2019). Cervical insufficiency. Merck Manual. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/abnormalities-of-pregnancy/cervical-insufficiency

Norwitz, E. (2016). Cervical insufficiency. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1979914-overview

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Ectopic Pregnancy

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). Practice Bulletin No. 193. Tubal ectopic pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 131(3), e91-103. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002560

American Society for Reproductive Medicine Practice Committee. (2013). Medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy: a committee opinion. Fertility and Sterility, 100, 638-644. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.06.013

Gaskins, A. J., Missmer, S. A., Rich-Edwards, J., Williams, P., Souter, I., Chavarro, J. (2018). Demographic, lifestyle, and reproductive risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. Fertility and Sterility, 110(7), 1328-1337. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.08.022

Grugnoli, D. M. (2019). Ectopic pregnancy. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539860/

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Gestational Diabetes

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 190: gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 131(2), 406-408. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002501

American Diabetes Association. (2020). Management of diabetes in pregnancy: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2020. Diabetes Care, 43(Suppl 1), S183-S192. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-S014

Cosson, E., Carbillon, R., & Valensi, P. (2017). High fasting plasma glucose during early pregnancy: a review about early gestational diabetes mellitus. Journal of Diabetes Research. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8921712

Dong, P. (2019). Association of vascular endothelial growth factor expression and polymorphisms with the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcla.22686

Farabi, S. S., & Hernandez, T. L. (2019). Low-carbohydrate diets for gestational diabetes. Nutrients, 11(8), 1737. Doi:10.3390/nu11081737

Guo, X‐Y., Shu, J., Fu, X‐H., Chen, X‐P., Zhang, L., Ji, M‐X., Liu, X‐M., Yu, T‐T., Sheng, J‐Z., Huang, H. F. (2019). Improving the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for gestational diabetes prevention: a meta‐ analysis and meta‐regression. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 126, 311-320. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.15467

Harper, L. M., Mele, L., Landon, M. B., Carpenter, M. W., Ramin, S. M., Reddy, U. M., and Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. (2016). Carpenter-Coustan compared with national diabetes data group criteria for diagnosing gestational diabetes. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 127(5), 893-898. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000001383

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

International Diabetes Federation. (2019). IDF Diabetes Atlas. (9th ed.). https://www.diabetesatlas.org/en/

Gilbert, L., Gross, J., Lanzi, S., Quansah, D. Y., Puder, J., & Horsch, A. (2019). How diet, physical activity and psychosocial well-being interact in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: an integrative review. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, (1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2185-y

Mirghani Dirar, A., & Doupis, J. (2017). Gestational diabetes from A to Z. World Journal of Diabetes, 8(12), 489–511. doi:10.4239/wjd.v8.i12.489

Moore, T. (2020). Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/127547-overview#a2

Nasiri-Amiri, F., Sepidarkish, M., Shirvani, M. A., Habibipour, P. & Tabari, N. (2019). The effect of exercise on the prevention of gestational diabetes in obese and overweight pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, (11), Article number 72. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-019-0470-6

Padayachee, C., & Coombes, J. S. (2015). Exercise guidelines for gestational diabetes mellitus. World Journal of Diabetes, 6(8), 1033-1044. doi:10.4239/wjd.v6.i8.1033

Poomalar, G. K. (2015). Changing trends in management of gestational diabetes mellitus. World Journal of Diabetes, 6(2), 284-295. doi:10.4239/wjd.v6.i2.284

Rani, P. R., & Begum, J. (2016). Screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. Where do we stand? Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR, 10(4), QE01-QE4. doi:10.7860/ JCDR/201 6/17588.7689

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care. (7th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics.

Bickley, L. S., & Szilagyi, P. G. (2016). Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. (12th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Cunningham, F. G., Leveno, K. J., Bloom, S. L., Dashe, J. S., Hoffman, B. L., Casey, B. M., & Spong C. Y. (2018). Williams Obstetrics. (25th ed). McGraw-Hill Education.

Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2019). Old's Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women's Health Across the Lifespan. (11th ed.). Prentice Hall.

Hui, P., Baergen, R., Cheung A., et al. (2014). Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia – pathogenesis. In: WHO Classification of Tumours of Female Reproductive Organs. Kurman, R. J., Carcangiu, M. L., Simon Haerrington, C. X., Young, R. H., (Eds). WHO Press.

King, T., Brucker, M., Osborne, K, and Jevitt, C. (2019). Varney’s Midwifery. (6th ed.). Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Moore, L. E. & Hernandez, E. (2018). Hydatidiform mole. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/254657-overview#a4

Ngan, H., Seckl, M. J., Berkowitz, R. S., Xiang, Y., Golfier, F., Sekharan, P. K., & Lurain, J. R. (2015). Update on the diagnosis and management of gestational trophoblastic disease. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 131, S123-S126. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.12615

Ngan, H., Seckl, M. J., Berkowitz, R. S., Xiang, Y., Golfier, F., Sekharan, P. K., Lurain, J. R., & Massuger, L. (2018). FIGO Cancer Report 2018: Update on the diagnosis and management of gestational trophoblastic disease. Internal Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 143(2), 79-85. DOI: 10.1002/ijgo.12615

Roszenhoic, A., Dodge, J., Breguet, M. & Sautheir, P. (2016). Gestational trophoblastic disease: opportunities for a national registry collaboration. International journal of gynecological cancer, 26(6), 1182-1185.

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Hyperemesis Gravidarum

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Patient Resources. Morning sickness: nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Morning-Sickness-Nausea-and-Vomiting-of-Pregnancy

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). Practice Bulletin No. 189: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 126, e12-24. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002450

Boelig, R. C., Barton, S. J., Saccon, G. Kelly, A. J., Edwards, S. J., Berghella, V. (2017). Interventions for treating hyperemesis gravidarum: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Maternal Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 31(18), 2492-2505. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14767058.2017.1342805

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Hyperemesis gravidarum. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

London, V., Grube, S., Sherer, D.M., Abulafia, O. (2017). Hyperemesis gravidarum: a review of recent literature. Pharmacology, 100, 161-171. doi: 10.1159/000477853

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Iron Deficiency Anemia

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2008, affirmed 2019). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 95: Anemia in pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 112(1), 201-207. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181809c0d

Auerbach, M. & Adamson, J. W. (2016). How we diagnose and treat iron deficiency anemia. American Journal of Hematology, 91(1), 31-38.

Brucker, M. C. & King, T. L. (2017). Vitamins and minerals. In Ferraro, K. Pharmacology for Women’s Health. (2nd ed.). (pp. 106-107). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Creasy, R. K., Lockwood, C. J., Resnik, R., Moore, T. R., Iams, J. D., & Greene, M. F. (2018). Anemia and pregnancy. In Kilpatrick, S. J. Creasy and Resnik’s Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice. (8th ed.). (pp. 918-931). Elsevier Saunders.

Davidson, M., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2019). Pregnancy at risk: pregestational problems. In Sutter, R. Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing & Women’s Health Across the Lifespan. (11th ed.). (pp. 350). Pearson.

Di Renzo, G. C., Spano, F., Giardina, I., Brillo, E., Clerici, G, & Roura, L. C. (2015). Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. Women’s Health, 11(6), 891-900. doi: 10.2217/whe.15.35

Nguyen, V., Wuebbolt, D. (2017). Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy and treatment options: a patient-preference study. Obstetrics & Gynecology. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000514632.23408.54

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Multiple Pregnancy

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). Patient Resources: Multiple Pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/patient-resources/faqs/pregnancy/multiple-pregnancy

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 169: Multifetal gestations: twin, triplet, and higher-order multifetal pregnancies. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 128(4), 926-928. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001700

Heard, A. (2016). Multifetal Pregnancy. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1618038-overview

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2019). NICE Clinical Guideline: antenatal care for uncomplicated pregnancies. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg62

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2019). NICE Clinical Guideline: twin and triplet pregnancy. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng137

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Placenta Previa

Anderson-Bagga, F. M. & Sze, A. (2019). Placenta previa. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539818/

Bakker, R. (2018). Placenta previa. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/262063-overview

Creasy, R. K., Lockwood, C. J., Resnik, R., Moore, T. R., Iams, J. D., & Greene, M. F. (2018). Placenta previa, placenta accreta, abruptio placentae, and vasa previa. In Hull, A. D. & Resnik, R. Creasy and Resnik’s Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice. (8th ed.). (pp. 732-736). Elsevier Saunders.

Davidson, M., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2016). Pregnancy at risk: pregestational problems. In Sutter, R. Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing & Women’s Health Across the Lifespan. (10th ed.). (pp. 350). Pearson.

Fujisaki, M., Furukawa, S., Maki, Y., Oohashi, M., Doi, K., Sameshma, H. (2017). Maternal morbidity in women with placenta previa managed with morbidly adherent placenta by ultrasonography. Journal of Pregnancy, 1-5. doi:10.1155/2017/8318751

Jauniaux, E., et al. (2019). Placenta previa and placenta accrete: diagnosis and management. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecology 126(1), e1-e48. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.15306

Kollman, M., Gaulhofer, J., Lang, U., Klaritsch, P. (2016). Placenta praevia: incidence, risk factors and outcome. Journal of Maternal Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 29(9), 1395-1398. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2015.1049152

Matthews, K. C., Anderson, S., Chasen, S. T. (2019). Pregnancy outcomes in women with incidentally detected unicornuate uterus. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 220(1), S225-S226. doi: 10.1016/j.ajob.2018.11.344

Silver, R. M. (2015). Abnormal placentation: placenta previa, vasa previa, and placenta accreta. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 126(3), 654-688. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001005

Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine & Gyamfi-Bannerman, C. (2018). Society for maternal-fetal medicine consult series #44: Management of bleeding in the late preterm period. Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, 44, B2-B8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.10.019

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Polymorphic Eruption of Pregnancy

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). Skin conditions during pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Patient-Education-Pamphlets/Files/Skin-Conditions-During-Pregnancy

Casanova, R., Chuang, A., Goepfert, A. R., Hueppchen, N. A., & Weiss, P. M. (2019). Beckmann & Ling’s Obstetrics and Gynecology. (8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Cunningham, F. G., Leveno, K. J., Bloom, S. L., Dashe, J. S., Hoffman, B. L., Casey, B. M., & Spong, C. Y. (2018). Williams Obstetrics. (25th ed.). McGraw-Hill Medical.

King, T. L., Bruker, M. C., Kriebs, J. M., Fahey, J. O., Gegor, C. L. (2018). Varney’s Midwifery. (6th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.

Pierson, J. C. (2020). Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1123725. .

Taylor, D., Pappo, E., & Aronson, I. K. (2016). Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy. Clinics in Dermatology. 34(3), 383-391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2016.02.011

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Postterm Pregnancy

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014, affirmed 2019). Practice Bulletin No.146: Management of late-term and postterm pregnancies. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 124, 390-396. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000452744.06088.48

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Postterm labor. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Wang, M., & Fontaine, P. (2014). Common questions about late-term and postterm pregnancy. American Family Physician, 90(3), 160-165. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0801/p160.html

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Preeclampsia, Eclampsia

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 202: Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 133(1), e1-e25. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003018

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). ACOG Committee Opinion No. 767: Emergent therapy for acute-onset, severe hypertension during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 133(2), e174-e180. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003075

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Preeclampsia, Eclampsia. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2017). Preeclampsia and eclampsia. https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/preeclampsia

Ross, M. (2019). Eclampsia. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/253960-overview#a1

United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2017). What causes preeclampsia and eclampsia? https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/preeclampsia/conditioninfo/causes

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Preterm Labor

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). Practice Bulletin No. 171: Management of preterm labor. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 128(4), e155-e164. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001711

American Pregnancy Association. (2019). Premature labor. https://americanpregnancy.org/labor-and-birth/premature-labor/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Preterm birth. https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pretermbirth.htm

Ross, M. (2018). Preterm Labor. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/260998-overview#a1

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Spontaneous Abortion

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). Practice Bulletin No. 200: Early pregnancy loss. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 132(5), e197-e207. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/practice-bulletin/articles/2018/11/early-pregnancy-loss

BMJ Publishing Group. (2018). Miscarriage. BMJ Best Practice. http://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-gb/666

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Spontaneous abortion. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Puscheck, E. (2018). Early pregnancy loss. Medscape. https://reference.medscape.com/article/266317-overview

Sapra, K. J., Joseph, K. S., Galea, S., Bates, L. M., Louis, G. M., & Ananth, C. V. (2017). Signs and symptoms of early pregnancy loss. Reproductive Sciences, 24(4), 502-513. doi:10.1177/1933719116654994

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Substance Use Disorder

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Committee Opinion No. 711. Opioid use and opioid use disorder in pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric-Practice/Opioid-Use-and-Opioid-Use-Disorder-in-Pregnancy

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Committee Opinion No. 722. Marijuana use during pregnancy and lactation. https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric-Practice/Marijuana-Use-During-Pregnancy-and-Lactation

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing.

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Substance use disorder in pregnancy. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Saia, K. A., Schiff, D., Wachman E. M., Mehta, P., Vilkins, A., Sia, M., Bagley, S. (2016). Caring for pregnant women with opioid use disorder in the USA: expanding and improving treatment. Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports, 5(3), 257-263. doi: 10.1007/s13669-016-0168-9

Conditions That Complicate Pregnancy: Umbilical Cord Prolapse

Ahmed, W. A., Hamdy, M. A. (2018). Optimal management of umbilical cord prolapse. International Journal of Women’s Health, 10, 459-465. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S130879

Boushra, M., Stone, A., & Rathbun, K.M. (2019). Umbilical cord prolapse. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK542241/

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Umbilical cord prolapse. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Adolescent Pregnancy

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). ACOG Committee on Adolescent Healthcare: Committee Opinion No. 699. Adolescent pregnancy, contraception, and sexual activity. https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Adolescent-Health-Care/Adolescent-Pregnancy-Contraception-and-Sexual-Activity

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Healthcare providers and teen pregnancy prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/health-care-providers/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Teen pregnancy. Improving contraceptive access: tools for providers. https://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/health-care-providers/improving-contraceptive-access.html

Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B. E., & Osterman, M. J. K. (2019). Births in the United States, 2018. National Vital Statistics Report, 346. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db346.htm

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2019). Trends in teen pregnancy and childbearing. https://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/adolescent-development/reproductive-health-and-teen-pregnancy/teen-pregnancy-and-childbearing/trends/index.html

Postpartum Care

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). Committee opinion No. 757: Screening for perinatal depression. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 132(5), e208-e212. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002927

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). Patient resources: Postpartum depression. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Postpartum-Depression

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Postpartum depression. In Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Association.

Food and Drug Administration. (n.d.). Zulresso highlights of prescribing information. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2019/211371lbl.pdf

Haim, A., Albin-Brooks, C., Sherer, M., Mills, E., & Leuner, B. (2016). The effects of gestational stress and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant treatment on structural plasticity in the postpartum brain. A translational model for postpartum depression. Hormones and Behavior 77, 125-131. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.05.005

Hallgren, M. (2016). Exercise and internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for depression. Multicenter randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48(383). DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.115.177576

Molyneaux, E., Telesia, L., Henshaw, C., Boath, E., Bradley, E., & Howard, L. (2018). Antidepressants for preventing postnatal depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, Art. No.: CD004363. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004363.pub3

National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). Perinatal depression. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/postpartum-depression-facts/index.shtml

O’Connor, E., Rossom, R., Henninger, M., Groom, H. C., & Burda, B. U. (2016). Primary care screening for and treatment of depression in pregnant and postpartum women: Evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Journal of the American Medical Association 315(4), 388-406. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.18948

Stewart, D. E., & Vigod, S. N. (2019). Postpartum depression: pathophysiology, treatment, and emerging therapeutics. Annual Review of Medicine 2019, (70), 183-196. doi:10.1146/annurev-med-041217-011106

Lactation: Physiology of Lactation

Davis, T. J. (2020). Physiology, lactation. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499981/

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Physiology of lactation. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Wagner, C. L. (2015). Human milk and lactation. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1835675-overview

Lactation: Nutrition During Lactation

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2020). Breastfeeding. https://www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/Breastfeeding/Pages/AAP-Policy-on-Breastfeeding.aspx

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2012). Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3), 827-841. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-3552

Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. (2015). AWHONN position statement: Breastfeeding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 44, 83-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/1552-6909.12530

Bzikowska-Jura, A., Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, A., Olędzka, G., Szostak-Węgierek, D., Weker, H., Wesołowska, A. (2018). Maternal nutrition and body composition during breastfeeding: association with human milk composition. Nutrients, 10(10):1379. doi:10.3390/nu10101379

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Mercury. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/environmental-exposures/mercury.html

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Nutrition during lactation. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Kominiarek, M. A., & Rajan, P. (2016). Nutrition recommendations in pregnancy and lactation. The Medical Clinics of North America, 100(6), 1199-1215. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2016.06.004

Breastfeeding: Deciding Whether to Breastfeed

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2012). Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3), 827-841. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-3552

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2017). Donor human milk for the high risk-infant: preparation, safety and usage options in the United States. Journal of Pediatrics, 139, 1-6. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3440

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). Committee Opinion No. 756. Optimizing support for breastfeed as part of obstetric practice. ACOG Obstetrics & Gynecology, 132:e187-96. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002890

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist. (2017). Committee Opinion No. 722. Marijuana use during pregnancy and lactation. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 130:e205-e209. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002354

Bartick, M. C., Jegier, B. J., Green, B. D., Schwarz, E. B., Reinhold, A. G, & Stuebe, A. M. (2016). Disparities in breastfeeding: Impact on maternal and child health outcomes and costs. The Journal of Pediatrics, 181, 49-55. doi: dx.doi.org10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.10.028

Boone, K. M., Geraghty, S. R., & Keim, S. A. (2016). Feeding at the breast and expressed milk feedings: associations with otitis media and diarrhea in infants. The Journal of Pediatrics, 174, 118-125. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.04.006

Boquien, C. (2018). Human milk: An ideal food for nutrition of preterm newborn. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 6. doi: 10.3389/fped.2018.00295

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Breastfeeding: Contraindication to breastfeeding or feeding expressed breast milk to infants. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/Contraindications-to-breastfeeding.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Breastfeeding report card: United States. 2018. Atlanta GA: CDC. Retrieved September 23, 2019 from https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/pdf/2018breastfeedingreportcard.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Vaccinations: Vaccination safety for breastfeeding mothers. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/vaccinations-medications-drugs/vaccinations.html

Chai, Y., Nandia, A., & Heymann, J. (2018). Does extending the duration of legislated paid maternity leave improved breastfeeding practices? Evidence from 38 low-income and middle-income countries. BMJ Global Health, 3(5) e001032. Doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001032

Donovan, S. A. (2019). Paid family leave in the United States. Congressional Research Service. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R44835.pdf

Grummer-Strawn, L. M., & Rollins, N. (2015). Summarising the health effects of breastfeeding. Acta Paediatrica, 104, 1-2. doi:10.111/apa.13136

Lodge, C. J., Tan, D. J., Lau, M., Dai, X., Tham, R., Lowe, A. J…. & Dharmage, S. C. (2015). Breastfeeding and asthma and allergies: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Paediatrica, 104, 38-53. doi:10.111/apa.13132

Meek, J. Y., & Hatcher, A. J. (2017). The breastfeeding-friendly pediatric office practice. Pediatrics, 139(5), doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-0647

Mosca, F. & Gianni, M. L. (2017). Human milk: composition and health benefits. La Pediatria Medica e Chirugica, 39(155), 47-52. doi: 10.48/pmc.2017.155

Nguyen, B., Jin, K., & Ding, D. (2017). Breastfeeding and maternal cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes: a systematic review. PloS One, 12(11), e0187923. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187923

Sriraman, N. K. & Kellams, A. (2016). Breastfeeding: What are the barriers? Why women struggle to achieve their goals. Journal of Women’s Health, 25(7), 714-722. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2014.5059

Victoria, C. G, Bahl, R., Barros, A. J., Franca, G.V., Horton, S., Krasevec, J.,… & Rollins, N. C. (2016). Breastfeeding in the 21st century: Epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect. The Lancet, 387(10017), 475-490. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01024-7

Wallby, T., Lagerberg, D., & Magnusson, M. (2017). Relationship between breastfeeding and early childhood obesity: Results of a prospective longitudinal study from birth to 4 years. Breastfeeding Medicine, 12(1), 48-53. doi: 10.1089/bfm.20160124

Wu, X., Jackson, R. T., Khan, S. A., Ahuja, J.,& Pehrsson, P. R. (2018). Human milk nutrient composition in the United States: Current knowledge, challenges, and research needs. Current Development in Nutrition, 2(7), nzy025. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzy025

Breastfeeding: Alcohol Use During Breastfeeding

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2019). Alcohol and breast milk. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/breastfeeding/Pages/Alcohol-Breast-Milk.aspx

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). Patient Resources. Breastfeeding your baby. https://www.acog.org/patient-resources/faqs/labor-delivery-and-postpartum-care/breastfeeding-your-baby

Anderson, A. O. (2018). Alcohol use during breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine, 13(5), 315-317. doi:10.1089/bfm.218.0053

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Breastfeeding: Alcohol. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/vaccinations-medications-drugs/alcohol.html

Gibson, L., & Porter, M. (2018). Drinking or smoking while breastfeeding and later cognition in children. Pediatrics, 42(2), e20174266. doi: 10.1542/peds2017-4266

Greomer, T. (2019). Alcohol and breasting, a review of the issues. World Nutrition, 10(1), 63-88. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26596/wn.201910163-88

Jansson, L. M. (2018). Maternal alcohol used during lactation and child development. Pediatrics, 142(2), e20181377. doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-1377

LactMed Drug and Lactation Database. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK501922/

Breastfeeding: Breast Care During Breastfeeding

Dennis, C. L., Jackson, K., & Watson, J. (2014). Interventions for treating painful nipples among breastfeeding women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12), CD007366. Doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007366.pub2

Eshgizade, M., Moghaddam, M. B., Moghaddam, H. M., Mahmodian, A. S., & Mesbah, M. (2015). A comparison of the efficacy of olive oil, aloe vera extract and breast milk on healing breast fissure in the breastfeeding women. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, 5, 85. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A435637113/HRCA?u=tel_p_memshel&sid=HRCA&xid=cdaec892

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Breast care during breastfeeding. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Lebedevs, T., Kendrick, C. (2019). Pharmacological management of common lactation problems. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 49(2). https://doi.org/10.1002/jppr.1561

Smith, E. (2016). If it's natural, why does it hurt? Examining the reasons mom may feel pain with breastfeeding. International Journal of Childbirth Education, 31(4). https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A472004424/HRCA?u=tel_p_memshel&sid=HRCA&xid=db1420b5

Breastfeeding: Breastfeeding Techniques

American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Committee Opinion 756: Optimizing support for breastfeeding as part of obstetric practice. https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric-Practice/Optimizing-Support-for-Breastfeeding-as-Part-of-Obstetric-Practice

American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Committee Opinion 570: Breastfeeding in underserved women: increasing initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Health-Care-for-Underserved-Women/Breastfeeding-in-Underserved-Women-Increasing-Initiation-and-Continuation-of-Breastfeeding

American College of Nurse Midwives. (2016). ACM Position Statement: Breastfeeding. http://www.midwife.org/acnm/files/ACNMLibraryData/UPLOADFILENAME/000000000248/Breastfeeding-statement-Feb-2016.pdf

Bigelow, A., Power, M., Gillis, D., Maclellan-Peters, J., Alex, M., McDonald, C. (2014). Breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact, and mother infant interactions over infants' first three months. Infant Mental Health Journal, 35, 51-62. DOI: 10.1002/imhj.21424

DiCioccio, H., Ady, C., Bena, J., Albert, N. (2019.) Initiative to improve exclusive breastfeeding by delaying the newborn bath. Initiative to improve exclusive breastfeeding by delaying the newborn bath. JOGNN, 48(2), 189-196. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jogn.2018.12.008

Henshaw, E., Fried, R., Siskind, E., Newhouse, L., Cooper. M. (2015). Breastfeeding self-efficacy, mood and breastfeeding outcomes among primiparous women. Journal of Human Lactation, 31(3), 511-518. DOI: 10.1177/0890334415579654

La Leche League International. (2019). Breastfeeding Info: Positioning. https://www.llli.org/breastfeeding-info/positioning/

World Health Organization. (2018). WHO recommendation on bathing and other immediate postnatal care of the newborn. Retrieved December 18, from https://extranet.who.int/rhl/topics/newborn-health/care-newborn-infant/who-recommendation-bathing-and-other-immediate-postnatal-care-newborn

World Health Organization. (n.d.). Ten steps to successful breastfeeding. https://www.who.int/activities/promoting-baby-friendly-hospitals/ten-steps-to-successful-breastfeeding

Breastfeeding: Determining Adequate Breast Milk Intake

Jensen, D., Wallace, S., Kelsay, P. (1994). LATCH: A breastfeeding charting system and documentation tool. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 23(1), 27-32. https://doi-org.ezhost.utrgv.edu/10.1111/j.1552-6909.1994.tb01847.x

La Leche League International. (n.d.). Is my baby getting enough milk? https://www.llli.org/breastfeeding-info/is-baby-getting-enough/

La Leche League Great Britain. (n.d.). Signs of effective feeding in the early days. https://www.laleche.org.uk/signs-effective-feeding-early-days-2/

Neifert, M. (2004). Breastmilk transfer: positioning, latch-on, and screening for problems in milk transfer. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 47(3), 656-675. DOI: 10.1097/01.grf.0000136183.12304.96

Neifert, M., Bunik, M. (2013). Overcoming clinical barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Pediatric Clinics of America, 60, 115-145.

Breastfeeding: Medication Use by Nursing Mothers

American Academy of Family Physicians. (2017). Breastfeeding (Policy Statement). https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/breastfeeding.html

American Academy of Pediatrics. (n.d.). Breastfeeding and medications. https://www.aap.org/en-us/Pages/Breastfeeding-and-Medication.aspx

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Contraindications to breastfeeding or feeding expressed breast milk to infants. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/contraindications-to-breastfeeding.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Prescription and medication use. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/vaccinations-medications-drugs/prescription-medication-use.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Vaccinations, medications, & drugs. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/vaccinations-medications-drugs/index.html

Food and Drug Administration. (2014). Pregnancy and lactation labeling rule. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/labeling-information-drug-products/pregnancy-and-lactation-labeling-drugs-final-rule

Hale, T. (2019). Hale’s Medications and Mothers’ Milk. Springer Publishing.

Korpela, K., Salonen, A., Virta, L. J., Kekkonen, R. A., de Vos, W. M. (2016). Association of early-life antibiotic use and protective effects of breastfeeding: role of the intestinal microbiota. JAMA Pediatrics,170 (8), 750-757. DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.0585

La Leche League International. (2019). Over-the-counter (OTC) medications and breastfeeding. https://www.llli.org/over-the-counter-otc-medications-and-breastfeeding-2/

La Leche League International. (n.d.). Medications. A quick guide for parents. https://www.llli.org/breastfeeding-info/medications-quick-guide-parents/

National Library of Medicine. (n.d.) Drugs and lactation database (LactMed). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK501922/

Breastfeeding: Smoking by the Nursing Mother

American Academy of Family Physicians. (2019). Pharmacologic product guide: FDA-approved medications for smoking cessation. https://www.aafp.org/dam/AAFP/documents/patient_care/tobacco/pharmacologic-guide.pdf

Banderali, D., Martelli, A., Landi, M., Moretti, F., Betti, F., Radaelli, G., Verfuci, E. (2015). Short- and long-term health effects of parental tobacco smoking during pregnancy and lactation: a descriptive review. Journal of Translational Medicine, 13, 327. doi: 10.1186/s12967-015-0690-y

Bernabe, E., MacRitchie, H., Longbottom, C., Pitts, N. B., & Sabbah, W. (2017). Birth weight, breastfeeding, maternal smoking and caries trajectories. Journal of Dental Research. 96(2) 171-178. DOI: 10.1177/0022034516678181

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Tobacco and e-cigarettes. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/vaccinations-medications-drugs/tobacco-and-e-cigarettes.html

Napierala, M., Mazela, J., Allen, T., & Florek, E. (2015). Tobacco smoking and breastfeeding: Effort on the lactation process, breast milk composition and infant development. A critical review. Environmental Research. 151, 321-338. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.002

Napierala, M., Merritt, T. A., Miechowicz, I., Mielnik, K., Mazela, J., & Florek, E. (2019). The effect of maternal tobacco smoking and second-hand tobacco smoke exposure on human milk oxidant-antioxidant status. Environmental Research. 170, 110-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.12.017

National Institute of Drug Abuse. (2020). What is the scope of tobacco use and its cost to society? https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/tobacco-nicotine-e-cigarettes/what-scope-tobacco-use-its-cost-to-society

Breastfeeding: Storage of Breast Milk

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Storage and preparation of breast milk. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/pdf/preparation-of-breast-milk_H.pdf

Eglash, A., Simon, L., & The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2017). ABM clinical protocol #8: Human milk storage information for home use for full-term infant, revised 2017. Breastfeeding Medicine, 12(7), 390-395. doi:10.1089/bfm.2017.29047.aje

Food and Drug Administration. (n.d.). Once baby arrives. Food safety for moms to be. https://www.fda.gov/food/people-risk-foodborne-illness/once-baby-arrives-food-safety-moms-be

Lawrence, R. A., & Lawrence, R. M. (2016). The collection and storage of human milk and human milk banking. In R. A. Lawrence & R. M. Lawrence (Eds.). Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Profession. (8th ed.). (pp.712-742). Elsevier.

Breastfeeding: Vitamin Supplementation of Breastfed Infants

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2012). Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3), 827-841. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-3552

Finn, K., Callen, C., Bhatia, J., Reidy, K., Bechard, L. J., & Carvalho, R. (2017). Importance of dietary sources of iron in infants and toddlers: Lessons from the FITS study. Nutrients, 9(7), 733. doi: https://doi.org/10.2290/nu9070733

Mosca, F. & Gianni, M. L. (2017). Human milk: Composition and health benefits. La Pediatria Medica e Chirugica, 39(155), 47-52. doi: 10.48/pmc.2017.155

Moyer, V. A. (2014). Prevention of dental caries in children from birth through age 5: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. recommendation statement. Pediatrics, 133, 1102-1111. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-0483

Rozier, R. G., Adair, S., Graham, F., Iafolla, T., Kingman, A., Kohn, W., ... & Strock, S. (2010). Evidence-based clinical recommendations on the prescription of dietary fluoride supplements for caries prevention: a report of the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 141(12), 1480-1489.

Taylor, S. N., & The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2018). ABM Clinical Protocol #29: Iron, zinc, and vitamin D supplementation during breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine, 13(6), 398-404. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2018.29095.snt

Toxnet: Toxicology Data Network. (n.d.). Drugs and lactation database (LactMed). https://toxnet.lm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/lmed.htmact

Wu, X., Jackson, R. T., Khan, S. A., Ahuja, J., & Pehrsson, P. R. (2018). Human milk nutrient composition in the United States: Current knowledge, challenges, and research needs. Current Development in Nutrition, 2(7), nzy025. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzy025

Breastfeeding: Weaning From Breastfeeding

American Academy of Family Physicians. (2017). Breastfeeding (policy statement). https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/breastfeeding.html

Charlick, S., Pincombe, J., McKellar, L., Gordan, A. (2019). The Private Journey: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Exclusive Breastfeeding. Women Birth, 32(1), e34-e42. doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2018.03.003

Kellams, A., Harrel, C., Omage, S., Gregory, C., Rosen-Carole, C., and Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2017). ABM clinical protocol #3: supplementary feedings in the healthy term breastfed neonate, Revised. Breastfeeding Medicine, 12(4). https://doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2017.29038.ajk

La Leche League International. (2019). Weaning: How To. https://www.llli.org/breastfeeding-info/weaning-how-to/

Stearns, C. (2011). Cautionary Tales About Extended Breastfeeding and Weaning. Health Care for Women International, 32, 538–554. DOI: 10.1080/07399332.2010.540051

Taylor, S. N. (2018). ABM Clinical Protocol #29: Iron, zinc, and vitamin D supplementation during breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine,13(6), 398-404. DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2018.29095.snt

Torquato I., Lima A., Neto V., Reichert, P. (2018). Standard for breastfeeding of children. Journal of Nursing, 12(10), 2514-2521. https://doi.org/10.5205/1981-8963-v12i10a237050p2514-2521-2018

World Health Organization. (2019). Breastfeeding. https://www.who.int/topics/breastfeeding/en/

Problems Associated With Breastfeeding: Breast Engorgement

Alekseev, N. P., Vladimir, I. I., & Nadezhda, T. E. (2015). Pathological postpartum breast engorgement: Prediction, prevention, and resolution. Breastfeeding Medicine, 10(4), 203-208. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2014.0047

Berens, P., Brodribb, W. & The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2016). ABM clinical protocol #20: Engorgement. Breastfeeding Medicine, 11, 159-163. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2016.29008.pjb

Gresh, A., Robinson, K., Thornton, C. P., & Plesko, C. (2019). Caring for women experiencing breast engorgement: A case report. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health. doi:10.1111/jmwh.13011

Wong, B. B., Chan, Y. H., Leow, M. Q. H., Lu, Y., Chong, Y. S., Koh, S. S. L., & He, H. (2017). Application of cabbage leaves compared to gel packs for mothers with breast engorgement: Randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 76, 92-99. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2017.08.014

Problems Associated With Breastfeeding: Breast Milk Leakage

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Leaking breasts during lactation. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Liebert, M. A. (2016). ABM Clinical Protocol #20: Engorgement, Revised 2016. Breastfeeding Medicine, 11(4), 159–163. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2008.9988

Problems Associated With Breastfeeding: Candida Infection of the Nipples

Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2016). ABM clinical protocol #26. Persistent pain with breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine, 11(2). DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2016.29002.pjb

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Candida infection of nipples. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Lawrence, R. & Lawrence R. (2015). Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Professional. (8th ed.). Elsevier.

Taylor, M., Raja, A. (2020). Oral candidiasis (thrush). StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK545282/

Problems Associated With Breastfeeding: Flat or Inverted Nipples

Bouchet-Horwitz, J. (2011). The use of supple cups for flat, retracting, and inverted nipples. Clinical Lactation, 2-3, 30-33.

Hollier, A. (Ed.). Flat or inverted nipples. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

La Leche League. (n.d.). Inverted and flat nipples. https://www.llli.org/breastfeeding-info/inverted-flat-nipples/

Problems Associated With Breastfeeding: Jaundice in Breastfed Infants

Bratton, S., Cantu, R. M. (2020). Breast milk jaundice. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537334/

Deshpande, P.G. (2017). Breast milk jaundice. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/973629-overview#a4

Fisherman, V. J., Maisels, M. J., & the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2017). ABM Clinical Protocol 22: Guidelines for the management of jaundice in the breastfeeding infant 35 weeks or more of gestation-revised 2017. Breastfeeding Medicine, 12(5). doi:10.1089/bfm.2017.29042.vjf

Muchowski, K. E. (2014). Evaluation and treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. American Family Physician, 89(11), 873-878. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0601/p873.html

Pace, E. J., Brown, C. M., DeGeorge, K. C. (2019). Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: An evidence-based approach. The Journal of Family Practice, 68(1), E4-E11. https://www.mdedge.com/familymedicine/article/193251/pediatrics/neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia-evidence-based-approach

Problems Associated With Breastfeeding: Mastitis

Amir, L. H. (2014). Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Clinical Protocol #4: Mastitis. Breastfeeding Medicine, 9(5), 239-243. https://abm.memberclicks.net/assets/DOCUMENTS/PROTOCOLS/4-mastitis-protocol-english.pdf

Amir, L. H., Trupin, S., Kvist, L. J. (2014). Diagnosis and treatment of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Journal of Human Lactation, 30(1), 10-13. doi: 10.1177/0890334413516065

Cullinane, M., Amir, L. H., Donath, S. M., Garland, S. M., Tabrizi, S. N., Payne, M. S., & Bennett, C. M. (2015). Determinants of mastitis in women in the CASTLE study: a cohort study. BMC Family Practice, 16(181). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12875-015-0396-5

Lebedevs, T., Kendrick, C. (2019). Pharmacological management of common lactation problems. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 49(2). https://doi.org/10.1002/jppr.1561

Leung, S. S. (2016). Breast pain in lactating mothers. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 4(22), 341-346. doi: 10.12809/hkmj154762

Miller, A. C. (2019). Mastitis empiric therapy. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2028354-overview

Problems Associated With Breastfeeding: Plugged Milk Duct

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Plugged milk duct. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Strong, G. D. (2011). Provider Management and Support for Breastfeeding Pain. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 40(6), 753-764. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6909.2011.01303.x

Witt, A. M., Bolman, M., Kredit, S., & Vanic, A. (2016). Therapeutic breast massage in lactation for the management of engorgement, plugged ducts, and mastitis. Journal of Human Lactation, 32(1), 123-131. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890334415619439

Zhao, C., Tang, R., Wang, J., Guan, X., Zheng, J., Hu, J., … Song, C. (2014). Six-Step recanalization manual therapy: a novel method for treating plugged ducts in lactating women. Journal of Human Lactation, 30(3), 324-330. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890334414532314

Problems Associated With Breastfeeding: Nipple Soreness

Berens, P., Eglash, A., Malloy, M., Steube, A. M., & the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2016). ABM clinical protocol #26: Persistent pain with breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine, 11(2), 1-8. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2016.29002.pjb

Lawrence, R. A., & Lawrence, R. M. (2016). Practical management of the mother-infant nursing couple. In R. A. Lawrence & R. M. Lawrence (Eds.), Breastfeeding: A guide for the medical profession. (8th ed.). (pp. 230-284). Elsevier.

Wambach, K. & Riordan, J. (2019). Breastfeeding and Human Lactation. Jones and Bartlett.

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