Urologic Disorders

Acute Kidney Injury


Brown, J. R. Rezaee, M. E., Marshall, E. J., and Matheny, M. E. (2016). Hospital mortality in the United States following acute kidney injury. BioMed Research International. doi:10.1155/2016/4278579


Gilbert, S. J., Weiner, D. E., Bomback, A. S., Perazella, M. A., and Tonelli, M. (Eds.). (2018). National Kidney Foundation’s Primer on Kidney Diseases. Elsevier.


Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Acute Kidney Injury Work Group. (2012). KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury. https://kdigo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/KDIGO-2012-AKI-Guideline-English.pdf


National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2019). NICE guideline NG148. Acute kidney injury: prevention, detection and management. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng148


Siew, E. D. & Davenport, A. (2014). The growth of acute kidney injury: a rising tide or just closer attention to detail? Kidney International, 87, 46-61. doi: 10.1038/ki.2014.293


Yu, A., Chertow, G., Luyckx, V., Marsden, P., Skorecki, K., Maarten, T. (2019). Brenner & Rector’s The Kidney (11th ed.). Elsevier Saunders.


Acute Pyelonephritis


Belyayeva, M., Jeong, J. M. (2020). Acute pyelonephritis. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519537/


BMJ Publishing Group. (2018). Acute pyelonephritis. BMJ Best Practice. http://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-us/551


Fulop, T. (2019). Acute Pyelonephritis. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/245559-treatment


Kang, C. I., Kim, J., Park, D. W., Kim, B. N., Ha, U. S., Lee, S. J., … Wie, S. H. (2018). Clinical practice guidelines for the antibiotic treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infections. Infection & Chemotherapy, 50(1), 67-100. doi:10.3947/ic.2018.50.1.67


Albuminuria, Proteinuria


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Chronic kidney disease in the United States, 2019. https://www.cdc.gov/kidneydisease/publications-resources/2019-national-facts.html


Gilbert, S. J., Weiner, D. E., Bomback, A. S., Perazella, M. A., & Tonelli, M. (2018) National Kidney Foundation’s Primer on Kidney Diseases. Elsevier.


Inker, L. A., Astor, B. C., Fox, C. H., Isakova, T., Lash, J. P., Peralta, C. A., Tamura, M. K., and Fledman, H. I. (2014). KDOQI US commentary on the 2012 KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of CKD. American Journal of Kidney Disease, 63(5), 713-715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.01.416


Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes. (2013). KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. https://kdigo.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/KDIGO_2012_CKD_GL.pdf


Asymptomatic Bacteriuria


Anger, J., Lee, U., Ackerman, A. L., Chou, R., Chughtai, B., Clemens, J. Q., ... & Rondanina, M. A. (2019). Recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women: AUA/CUA/SUFU Guideline. The Journal of Urology, 202(2), 282-289. doi: 10.1097/JU.0000000000000296


Bharti, A., Chawla, S., Kumar, S., Kaur, S., Soin, D., Jindal, N., & Garg, R. (2019). Asymptomatic bacteriuria among the patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 8(2), 539-543. doi:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc403_18


Biggel, M., Heytens, S., Latour, K., Bruyndonckx, R., Goossens, H., & Moons, P. (2019). Asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults: the most fragile women are prone to long-term colonization. BMC Geriatrics, 19(1), 170. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-019-1181-4


Coussement, J., Scemla, A., Abramowicz, D., Nagler, E. V., & Webster, A. C. (2018). Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in kidney transplant recipients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2(2). doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011357.pub2


Daniel, M., Keller, S., Mozafarihashjin, M., Pahwa, A., & Soong, C. (2018). An implementation guide to reducing overtreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. JAMA Internal Medicine, 178(2), 271-276. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.7290


Mandal, J. (2017). Significance of asymptomatic bacteriuria. European Medical Journal, 2(3), 71-77. https://www.emjreviews.com/urology/article/significance-of-asymptomatic-bacteriuria/


Moore, A., Doull, M., Grad, R., Groulx, S., Pottie, K., Tonelli, M., ... & Thombs, B. D. (2018). Recommendations on screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 190(27), E823. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.171325


Nicolle, L. E., Gupta, K., Bradley, S. F., Colgan, R., DeMuri, G. P., Drekonja, D., ... & Juthani-Mehta, M. (2019). Clinical practice guideline for the management of asymptomatic bacteriuria: 2019 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 68(10), e83-e110. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy1121


Nicolle, L. (2016). The paradigm shift to non-treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Pathogens, 5(2), 38. DOI: 10.3390/pathogens5020038


Pannek, J., & Wöllner, J. (2017). Management of urinary tract infections in patients with neurogenic bladder: challenges and solutions. Research and Reports in Urology, 9(121). doi: 10.2147/RRU.S113610


Sabé, N., Oriol, I., Melilli, E., Manonelles, A., Bestard, O., Polo, C., ... & Tebé, C. (2019). Antibiotic treatment versus no treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria in kidney transplant recipients: a multicenter randomized trial. In Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 6(6), ofz243. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofz243


World Health Organization. (2016). WHO recommendation on the method for diagnosing asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. https://extranet.who.int/rhl/topics/preconception-pregnancy-childbirth-and-postpartum-care/antenatal-care/who-recommendation-antibiotics-asymptomatic-bacteriuria


Diabetic Nephropathy


Alicic, R. Z., Rooney, M. T., & Tuttle, K. R. (2017). Diabetic kidney disease challenges, progress, and possibilities. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 12(12), 2032-2045. DOI: 10.2215/CJN.11491116


American Diabetes Association. (2020). Standards of medical care in diabetes 2020—abridged for primary care providers. Clinical Diabetes, 38(1), 10-38. https://doi.org/10.2337/cd20-as01

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). National Diabetes Statistics Report. Estimates of Diabetes and Its Burden in the United States. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/data/statistics/national-diabetes-statistics-report.pdf


Gilbert, S. J., Weiner, D. E., Bomback, A. S., Perazella, M. A., & Tonelli, M. (2018). National Kidney Foundation’s Primer on Kidney Diseases. Elsevier.


National Kidney Foundation. (2012). KDOQI clinical practice guideline for diabetes and CKD: 2012 update. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 60(5), 850-886. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.07.005


U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2016). FDA drug safety communication: FDA revises warnings regarding use of the diabetes medicine metformin in certain patients with reduced kidney function. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-drug-safety-communication-fda-revises-warnings-regarding-use-diabetes-medicine-metformin-certain


World Health Organization. (2020). Diabetes. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/



Enuresis


Akhavizadegan, H., Locke, J. A., Stothers, L., & Kavanagh, A. (2018). A comprehensive review of adult enuresis. Canadian Urological Association Journal, 13(8), 282-287. DOI: 10.5489/cuaj.5485


Amiri, S., Shafiee-Kandjani, A. R., Naghinezhad, R., Farhang, S., & Abdi, S. (2017). Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with nocturnal enuresis. Urology Journal, 14(1), 2968-2972.


Austin, P. F., et al. (2016). The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function in children and adolescents: update report from the Standardization Committee of the International Children’s Continence Society. Neurourology and Urodynamics, 35, 471-81. doi: 10.1002/nau.22751


Cho, W. Y., Kim, S. C., Kim, S. O., Park, S., Lee, S. D., Chung, J. M., ... & Kim, J. M. (2018). Can recording only the day-time voided volumes predict bladder capacity? Investigative and Clinical Urology, 59(3), 194-199. DOI: 10.4111/icu.2018.59.3.194


Fagundes, S. N., Lebl, A. S., Soster, L. A., Silva, G. J. S., de Mattos Silvares, E. F., & Koch, V. H. (2017). Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in pediatric patients: multidisciplinary assessment and effects of therapeutic intervention. Pediatric Nephrology, 32(5), 843-851. DOI: 10.1007/s00467-016-3510-6


Harrington, M. (2017). Bladder capacity. Nephrology Nursing Journal, 44(1), 92.


Hobbs, A. M. E., Short, H., & Paul, S. P. (2016). Clinical update: Childhood enuresis. Community Practitioner, 89(9), 30-35.


Ikeda, H., Watanabe, T., & Isoyama, K. (2017). Increased renal concentrating ability after long‐term oral desmopressin lyophilisate treatment contributes to continued success for monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. International Journal of Urology, 24(9), 698-702. doi: 10.1111/iju.13394


Kuwertz-Bröking, E., & von Gontard, A. (2018). Clinical management of nocturnal enuresis. Pediatric Nephrology, 33(7), 1145-1154.


Ma, Y., Liu, X., & Shen, Y. (2017). Behavioral factors for predicting severity of enuresis and treatment responses in different compliance groups receiving behavioral therapy. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 33(4), 953. DOI: 10.12669/pjms.334.12922


Mohsenzadeh, A., Ahmadipour, S., Farhadi, A., & Shahkarami, K. (2017). Study of behavioural disorders in children with primary enuresis. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 71(3), 238-244. doi: 10.1080/08039488.2016.1269834


Nevéus, T. (2017). Pathogenesis of enuresis: Towards a new understanding. International Journal of Urology, 24(3), 174-182. doi: 10.1111/iju.13310


Shepard, J. A., Poler Jr, J. E., & Grabman, J. H. (2017). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for pediatric elimination disorders. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 46(6), 767-797.


Tobias, N. E. (2018). Part 1: Managing enuresis in primary care. Contemporary Pediatrics, 35(9), 27-34. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2016.1247356


Van Herzeele, C., & Walle, J. V. (2016). Incontinence and psychological problems in children: A common central nervous pathway? Pediatric Nephrology, 31(5), 689-692. doi: 10.1007/s00467-016-3336-2


Walle, J. V., Rittig, S., Tekgül, S., Austin, P., Shei-Dei Yang, S., Lopez, P. J., & Van Herzeele, C. (2017). Enuresis: Practical guidelines for primary care. British Journal of General Practice, 67(660), 328-329. doi: 10.3399/bjgp17X691337


Tsai, J. D., Chen, H. J., Ku, M. S., Chen, S. M., Hsu, C. C., Tung, M. C., ... & Sheu, J. N. (2017). Association between allergic disease, sleep-disordered breathing, and childhood nocturnal enuresis: a population-based case-control study. Pediatric Nephrology, 32(12), 2293-2301. doi: 10.1007/s00467-017-3750-0


Yu, J., Yan, Z., Zhou, S., Han, F., Xiao, F., Han, J., Sun, C. (2017). Desmopressin plus anticholinergic agent in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis: A meta-analysis. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. 14(4), 2875-2884. doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.4897



Glomerulonephritis


Gilbert, S. J., Weiner, D. E., Bomback, A. S., Perazella, M. A., and Tonelli, M. (Ed.). (2018). National Kidney Foundation’s Primer On Kidney Diseases. Elsevier.


Inker, L. A., Astor, B. C., Fox, C. H., Isakova, T., Lash, J. P., Peralta, C. A., Tamura, M. K., and Fledman, H. I. (2014). KDOQI US commentary on the 2012 KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of CKD. American Journal of Kidney Disease, 63(5), 713-715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.01.416


International Society of Nephrology. (2013). KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. http://www.kdigo.org/clinical_practice_guidelines/pdf/CKD/KDIGO_2012_CKD_GL.pdf


Hematuria


American College of Physicians. (2016). Hematuria as a marker of occult urinary tract cancer: advice for high-value care from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 164(7), 488-498. https://doi.org/10.7326/M15-1496


American Urological Association. (2012). Diagnosis, evaluation, and follow-up of asymptomatic microhematuria in adults: AUA guideline. The Journal of Urology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2012.09.078


Gilbert, S. J., Weiner, D. E., Bomback, A. S., Perazella, M. A., & Tonelli, M. (Ed.). (2018). National Kidney Foundation’s Primer on Kidney Diseases. Elsevier.


Gulati, S. (2020). Hematuria. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/981898-overview


Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis


Geetha, D. (2018). Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis Treatment & Management. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/240337-treatment


Gilbert, S. J., Weiner, D. E., Bomback, A. S., Perazella, M. A., and Tonelli, M. (Ed.). (2018). National Kidney Foundation’s Primer on Kidney Diseases. Elsevier.


International Society of Nephrology. (2013). KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney International Supplements, 3(1), 1-150.


Renal Insufficiency


International Society of Nephrology. (2017). KDIGO 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline Update for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease–Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD). http://kdigo.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/2017-KDIGO-CKD-MBD-GL-Update.pdf


International Society of Nephrology. (2013). KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. https://kdigo.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/KDIGO_2012_CKD_GL.pdf


Jameson, L. J. & Loscalzo, J. (2016). Harrison’s Nephrology and Acid Base Disorders. (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill.


National Kidney Foundation. (2014). Primer on Kidney Diseases (6th ed.). Elsevier Saunders.


Taal, M. W., Chertow, G. M., Marsden, P. A., Skorecki, K., Yu, A. S. L., & Brenner, B. M. (2015). Brenner & Rector’s The Kidney. (10th ed.). Saunders Elsevier.


Urethritis


Bazan, J. A., Turner, A. N., Kirkcaldy, R. D., Retchless, A. C., Kretz, C. B., Briere, E., ... & Abrams, A. J. (2017). Large cluster of Neisseria meningitidis urethritis in Columbus, Ohio, 2015. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 65(1), 92-99. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix215


Bazan, J. A., Peterson, A. S., Kirkcaldy, R. D., Briere, E. C., Maierhofer, C., Turner, A. N., ... & Johnson, L. (2016). Increase in Neisseria Meningitidis-associated urethritis among men at two sentinel clinics—Columbus, Ohio, and Oakland County, Michigan, 2015. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 65(21), 550.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recommendations and Reports, 64(No. RR-3), 1-137. https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/default.htm


Frølund, M., Wikström, A., Lidbrink, P., Al-Soud, W. A., Larsen, N., Harder, C. B., ... & Ahrens, P. (2018). The bacterial microbiota in first-void urine from men with and without idiopathic urethritis. PloS one, 13(7), e0201380. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201380


Jordan, S. J., Aaron, K. J., Schwebke, J. R., Van Der Pol, B. J., & Hook III, E. W. (2018). Defining the urethritis syndrome in men using patient reported symptoms. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 45(7), e40-e42. DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000790


Moi, H., Blee, K., & Horner, P. J. (2015). Management of non-gonococcal urethritis. BMC Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 294. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-015-1043-4


World Health Organization. (2016). WHO guidelines for the treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/rtis/gonorrhoea-treatment-guidelines/en/


Urinary Incontinence


American Urogynecologic Society Committee on Gynecologic Practice. (2014). Committee Opinion No. 603: Evaluation of uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence in women before surgical treatment. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 123(6), 1403-1407. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24848922/


Bardsley, A. (2016). An overview of urinary incontinence. British Journal of Nursing, 25(18), S14-S21. doi: 10.12968/bjon.2016.25.18.S14


Kobashi, K. C., Albo, M. E., Dmochowski, R. R., Ginsberg, D. A., Goldman, H. B., Gomelsky, A., ... & Vasavada, S. (2017). Surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: AUA/SUFU guideline. The Journal of Urology, 198(4), 875-883. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2017.06.061


Nambiar, A. K., Bosch, R., Cruz, F., Lemack, G. E., Thiruchelvam, N., Tubaro, A., ... & Schneider, M. P. (2018). EAU guidelines on assessment and nonsurgical management of urinary incontinence. European Urology, 73(4), 596-609. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2017.12.031


Prescribers Digital Reference. (2020). https://www.pdr.net/


Qaseem, A., Dallas, P., Forciea, M.A., et al. (2014). Nonsurgical management of urinary incontinence in women: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 161(6): 429-440. DOI: 10.7326/M13-2410


Syan, R., & Brucker, B. M. (2016). Guideline of guidelines: urinary incontinence. BJU international, 117(1), 20-33. doi: 10.1111/bju.13187


Van Kampen, M., Devoogdt, N., De Groef, A., Gielen, A., & Geraerts, I. (2015). The efficacy of physiotherapy for the prevention and treatment of prenatal symptoms: a systematic review. International Urogynecology Journal, 26(11), 1575-1586. doi: 10.1007/s00192-015-2684-y


Vasavada, S. P. (2019). Urinary incontinence. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/452289-overview


Urinary Tract Infection


Anger, J., Lee, U., Ackerman, A. L., Chou, R., Chughtai, B., Clemens, J. Q., ... & Rondanina, M. A. (2019). Recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women: AUA/CUA/SUFU Guideline. The Journal of Urology, 10-1097. DOI: 10.1097/JU.0000000000000296


Becknell, B., Schober, M., Korbel, L., & Spencer, J. D. (2015). The diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of acute and recurrent pediatric urinary tract infections. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, 13(1), 81-90. doi: 10.1586/14787210.2015.986097


Brusch, J. L. (2020). Urinary tract infection and cystitis in females. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/233101-overview#a5


Eisenberg, M. L., Galusha, D., Kennedy, W. A., Cullen, M. R. (2018). The relationship between neonatal circumcision, urinary tract infection, and health. World Journal of Men’s Health, 36(3), 176-182. doi: 10.5534/wjmh.180006


Flores-Mireles, A. L., Walker, J. N., Caparon, M., & Hultgren, S. J. (2015). Urinary tract infections: Epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 13(5), 269. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25853778/


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Urinary tract infection. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Öztürk, R., Murt, A. (2020). Epidemiology of urological infections: a global burden. World Journal of Urology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-019-03071-4


Prescribers Drug Reference. (2020). https://www.pdr.net/


Roberts, K. B., & Wald, E. R. (2018). The diagnosis of UTI: Colony count criteria revisited. Pediatrics, 141(2), e20173239. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-3239


Schmidt, B., & Copp, H. L. (2015). Work-up of pediatric urinary tract infection. Urologic Clinics, 42(4), 519-526. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2015.05.01


Velez, R., Richmond, E., & Dudley-Brown, S. (2017). Antibiogram, clinical practice guidelines, and treatment of urinary tract infection. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 13(9), 617-622. https://www.npjournal.org/article/S1555-4155(17)30635-9/pdf


Urolithiasis, Nephrolithiasis


American Urological Association. (2014; confirmed 2019). Medical management of kidney stones. https://www.auanet.org/guidelines/kidney-stones-medical-mangement-guideline


Dave, C. N. (2020). Nephrolithiasis. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/437096-overview


Diri, A., & Diri, B. (2018). Management of staghorn renal stones. Renal Failure, 40(1), 357-362. doi:10.1080/0886022X.2018.1459306


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


Morgan, M., & Pearle, M. (2016). Medical management of renal stones. BMJ, 352, 52. doi:10.1136/bmj.i52


Shafi, H., Moazzami, B., Pourghasem, M., & Kasaeian, A. (2016). An overview of treatment options for urinary stones. Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine, 7(1), 1-6.: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4761115/


Vesicoureteral Reflux


American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Urinary Tract Infection. (2016). Reaffirmation of AAP Clinical Practice Guideline: The diagnosis and management of the initial urinary tract infection in febrile infants and young children 2-24 months of age. Pediatrics. 138(6). Doi:10.1542/peds. 2016-3026


American Urological Association (2017). Management and screening of primary vesicoureteral reflux in children. https://www.auanet.org/guidelines/vesicoureteral-reflux-guideline


Estrada, C. R. (2018). Vesicoureteral reflux. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/439403-overview


Garcia, M., & Kirsch, A. (2016). Urinary tract infection in the setting of vesicoureteral reflux. F1000 Research, 5. Doi:10.12688/f1000research.8390.1


Mattoo, T., Chesney, R., Greenfield, S., Hoberman, A., Keren, R., Mathews, R., Ziessman, H. (2016). Renal scarring in the randomized intervention for children with vesicoureteral reflux (RIVUR) trial. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 11(1), 54¬61. Doi: 10.2215/CJN.05210515


The RIVUR Trial Investigators. (2014). Antimicrobial prophylaxis for children with vesicoureteral reflux. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(25), 2367–2376. Doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1401811


Wozniak, M. M., Osemlak, P., Pawelec, A., Brodzisz, A., Nachulewicz, P., Wieczorek, A., & Zajaczkowska, M. (2014). Intraoperative contrast enhanced urosonography during endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children. Pediatric Radiology, 44(9), 1093–1100. Doi: 10.1007/s00247¬014¬2963¬7(1)


Wilms Tumor


Children’s Oncology Group. (2011). Wilms Tumor: In Treatment. https://childrensoncologygroup.org/index.php/wilmstumorandotherkidneycancers?id=193


Cure Search. (n.d.). Childhood Cancer Statistics. https://curesearch.org/Number-of-Diagnoses


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Wilms tumor. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.


National Cancer Institute. (2020). Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney tumors treatment. https://www.cancer.gov/types/kidney/patient/wilms-treatment-pdq


Paulino, A. (2020). Wilms tumor. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/989398-overview




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