Women's Health Disorders

Abnormal Cervical Screening

Acuna, S. A., Huang, J. W., Scott, A. L., Micic, S., Daly, C., Brezden-Masley, C., . . . Baxter, N. N. (2017). Cancer screening recommendations for solid organ transplant recipients: a systematic review of clinical practice guidelines. American Journal of Transplant, 17(1), 103-114. doi:10.1111/ajt.13978

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). Patient resources: abnormal cervical cancer screening test results. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Abnormal-Cervical-Cancer-Screening-Test-Results

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines for Average-Risk Women. http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/cervical/pdf/guidelines.pdf

Chelimo, C., Wouldes, T. A., Cameron, L. D., & Elwood, J. M. (2013). Risk factors for and prevention of human papillomaviruses (HPV), genital warts and cervical cancer. Journal of Infectious Disease 66(3), 207-217. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2012.10.024

Ghelardi, A., Parazzini, F., Martella, F., Pieralli, A., Bay, P., Tonetti, A., . . . Joura, E. A. (2018). SPERANZA project: HPV vaccination after treatment for CIN2. Gynecologic Oncology, 151(2), 229-234. doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2018.08.033

Massad, L. S., Einstein, M. H., Huh, W. K., Katki, H. A., Kinney, W. K., Schiffman, M., Conference, A. C. G. (2013). 2012 updated consensus guidelines for the management of abnormal cervical cancer screening tests and cancer precursors. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 121(4), 829-846. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182883a34

Perkins, R. B., Guido, R. S., Castle, P. E., Chelmow, D., Einstein, M. H., Mosicki, A-B., Nayar, R., …for the 2019 ASCCP Risk-Based Management Consensus Guidelines Committee. (2020). Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 24(2), 102-131. doi: 10.1097/LGT.0000000000000525

Reusser, N. M., Downing, C., Guidry, J., & Tyring, S. K. (2015). HPV carcinomas in immunocompromised patients. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 4(2), 260-281. doi:10.3390/jcm4020260

Saslow, D., Solomon, D., Lawson, H. W., Killackey, M., Kulasingam, S. L., Cain, J. M., Waldman, J. (2012). American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 16(3), 175-204. doi: 10.1097/LGT.0b013e31824ca9d5

Solomon, D., Davey, D., Kurman, R., Moriarty, A., O'Connor, D., Prey, M., Bethesda, W. (2002). The 2001 Bethesda System: terminology for reporting results of cervical cytology. JAMA, 287(16), 2114-2119. doi:10.1001/jama.287.16.2114

Vegunta, S., Files, J. A., & Wasson, M. N. (2017). Screening women at high risk for cervical cancer: special groups of women who require more frequent screening. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 92(8), 1272-1277. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2017.06.007

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Abbvie, Inc. (2020). Oriahnn (elagolix, estradiol, and norethindrone) prescribing information. https://www.rxabbvie.com/pdf/oriahnn_pi.pdf

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Committee Opinion No. 557. Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Gynecologic-Practice/Management-of-Acute-Abnormal-Uterine-Bleeding-in-Nonpregnant-Reproductive-Aged-Women

Bacon, J. L. (2017). Abnormal uterine bleeding: current classification and clinical management. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, 44(2), 179-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ogc.2017.02.012

Bradley, L. D., & Gueye, N. A. (2016). The medical management of abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 214(1), 31-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2015.07.044

Deneris, A. (2016). PALM‐COEIN nomenclature for abnormal uterine bleeding. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, 61(3), 376-379. https://doi.org/10.1111/jmwh.12440

Hashim, H. A., Ghayaty, E., & Rakhawy, M. (2015). Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system vs oral progestins for non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 213(4), 469-478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2015.03.037

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Abnormal uterine bleeding. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Rezk, M., Masood, A., & Dawood, R. (2015). Perimenopausal bleeding: patterns, pathology, response to progestins and clinical outcome. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 35(5), 517-521. https://doi.org/10.3109/01443615.2014.977781

Whitaker, L., & Critchley, H. O. (2016). Abnormal uterine bleeding. Best Practices & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 34, 54-65. 376-379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2015.11.012

Amenorrhea

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014, reaffirmed 2020). ACOG Committee Opinion Number 605. Primary ovarian insufficiency in adolescents and young women. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2014/07/primary-ovarian-insufficiency-in-adolescents-and-young-women

Baheti, S., Verma, A., & Sharma, M. (2019). Premature ovarian failure incidence, risk factors and its relation to BMI and infertility. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 8(3). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20190862

Gasner, A., Rehman, A. (2020). Primary amenorrhea. StatPearls. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32119356/

Lord, M., Sahni, M. (2019). Amenorrhea, secondary. StatPearls. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28613709/

Nawaz, G., Rogol, A. D. (2020). Amenorrhea. StatPearls. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29489290/

Rebar, R. (2018). Evaluation of amenorrhea, anovulation, and abnormal bleeding. Endoext. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279144/

Samal, R., & Habeebullah, S. (2017). Primary amenorrhea: a clinical review. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 6(11). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20174981

Tough Desapri, K. A. (2019). Amenorrhea. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/252928-overview

Turkington, C. A., & Venkat, C. (2016). Amenorrhea. In D. S. Blanchfield (Ed.). The Gale Encyclopedia of Children's Health: Infancy through Adolescence (3rd ed.) (pp. 122-124). https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3630900043/HWRC?u=tel_p_memshel&sid=HWRC&xid=fa8c556d

Bartholin's Gland Cyst/Abscess

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). 2015 sexually transmitted diseases guidelines. https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/default.htm

Kilpatrick. C. C. (2020). Bartholin gland cysts. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/miscellaneous-gynecologic-disorders/bartholin-gland-cysts?query=bartholin%20gland%20cyst

Lee, M. Y., Dalpiaz, A., Schwamb, R., Miao, Y., Waltzer, W., Khan, A. (2015). Clinical pathology of Bartholin’s glands: a review of the literature. Current Urology, 8(1): 22-25. doi: 10.1159/000365683

Lee, W. A., Wittler, M. (2019). Bartholin gland cyst. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532271/

Omole, F., Kelsey, R. C., Phillips, K., Cunningham, K. (2019). Bartholin duct cyst and gland abscess: office management. American Family Physician. 99(12), 760-766. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p760.html

Schlamovitz, G. Z. (2019). Bartholin abscess drainage. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/80260-overview

Benign Ovarian Tumors

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 174: Evaluation and management of adnexal masses. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 128(5), e210-e226. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001768

Biggs, W. S. & Marks, S. T. (2016). Diagnosis and management of adnexal masses. American Family Physician, 93(8), 676-681. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0415/p676.html

Burnett, T. (2018). Ovarian cysts and infertility: A connection? Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ovarian-cysts/expert-answers/ovarian-cysts-and-infertility/faq-20057806

Darnell, K. D. & Likis, F. E. (2017). Women’s Gynecological Health. (3rd ed). Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Grabosch, S. M. et al. (2018). What is the role of oral contraceptives in the treatment of ovarian cysts? Medscape. https://www.medscape.com/answers/255865-25753/what-is-the-role-of-oral-contraceptives-in-the-treatment-of-ovarian-cysts

Kilpatrick, C. C. (2019). Benign ovarian masses. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/miscellaneous-gynecologic-disorders/benign-ovarian-masses

National Institute of Health, National Cancer Institute. (2018). Oral contraceptives and cancer risk. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/hormones/oral-contraceptives-fact-sheet

Newson, L. (2015). Benign ovarian tumours. https://patient.info/doctor/Benign-Ovarian-Tumours

Schadewald, D. M., Pritham, U. A., Youngkin, E. Q., Davis, M. S. & Juve, C. (2019). Women’s Health: A Primary Care Clinical Guide. (5th ed.). Pearson Education.

Breast Cancer

American Academy of Family Physicians. (2017). Summary of recommendations for clinical preventive services. https://www.aafp.org/dam/AAFP/documents/patient_care/clinical_recommendations/cps-recommendations.pdf

American Cancer Society. (2020). American Cancer Society recommendations for the early detection of breast cancer. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/screening-tests-and-early-detection/american-cancer-society-recommendations-for-the-early-detection-of-breast-cancer.html

American Cancer Society. (n.d.). Breast cancer signs and symptoms. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/about/breast-cancer-signs-and-symptoms.html

American Cancer Society. (2019). Survival rates for breast cancer. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/understanding-a-breast-cancer-diagnosis/breast-cancer-survival-rates.html

American College of Obstertricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Practice Bulletin Number 179: Breast cancer risk assessment and screening in average-risk women. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 130(1), e1-e16. doi:10.1097/aog.0000000000002158

Cadet, M. J. (2019). Comparing the various breast cancer screening guidelines. The Journal of Nurse Practitioners, 15,574-578. doi: 10.1016/j.nurpra.2019.03.022

Euhus, D. M., & Diaz, J. (2015). Breast cancer prevention. The Breast Journal, 21(1), 76-81. doi:10.1111/tbj.12352

Gorham, R. (2020). Caring for women on adjuvant therapy for breast cancer: The role of the NP in the primary care setting. Women’s Healthcare: A Clinical Journal for NPs, 8(1), 6-16.

Nagahashi, M., Shimada, Y., Ichikawa, H., Kameyama, H., Takabe, K., Okuda, S., & Wakai, T. (2019). Next generation sequencing-based gene panel tests for the management of solid tumors. Cancer Science, 110(1), 6-15. doi:10.1111/cas.13837

National Cancer Institute. (2020). Breast cancer: health professional version. https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp

National Cancer Institute. (2020). Cancer stat facts: female breast cancer. https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Cancer stat facts: Female breast cancer subtypes. https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp

Oeffinger, K. C., Fontham, E. T., Etzioni, R., Herzig, A, Michaelson, J. S., Shih, Y…Wender, R. (2015). Breast cancer screening for women at average risk: 2015 guideline update from the American Cancer Society. JAMA, 314(15), 1599-1614. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.12783

Rich, T. A., Woodson, A. H., Litton, J., & Arun, B. (2015). Hereditary breast cancer syndromes and genetic testing. Journal of Surgical Oncololgy, 111(1), 66-80. doi:10.1002/jso.23791

Shah, R., Rosso, K., Nathanson, S. D. (2014). Pathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. World Journal of Clinical Oncology, 5(3), 283-298. Doi: 10.5306/wjco.V5.i3.283

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2016). Breast cancer: screening. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/breast-cancer-screening

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2016). Screening for breast cancer: recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 164(4), 279-296. doi:10.7326/M15-2886

Breast Disorders: Fibroadenoma

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist. (2016). Practice Bulletin Number 164: Diagnosis and management of benign breast disorders. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 127(6), e141-e155. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001482

Bloom, C. (2015). Breast papillomas: a comprehensive review. Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography, 31(5), 282-289. https://doi.org/10.1177/8756479315599544

Hahn, M., Fugunt, R., Schoenfisch, B., Oberlechner, E., Gruber, I. V., Hoopmann, U., & Warzecha. H. (2018). High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of symptomatic breast fibroadenoma. International Journal of Hyperthermia, 35(1), 463-470. DOI: 10.1080/02656736.2018.1508757

Kiran, S., Jeong, Y. J., Nelson, M. E., Ring, A., Johnson, M. B., Sheth, P. A., & Lang, J. E. (2018). Are we overtreating intraductal papillomas? Journal of Surgical Research, 231, 387-394. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2018.06.008

Klassen C., Hines S., Ghosh K. (2019). Common benign breast concerns for the primary care physician. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 86, 57-65. Doi:10.3949/ccjm.86a.17100

Nassar, A., Visscher, D. W., Degnim A. C., et al. (2015). Complex fibroadenoma and breast cancer risk: a Mayo Clinic benign breast disease cohort study. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 153(2), 397-405. doi:10.1007/s10549-015-3535-8

Orr, B., Kelley, J. L. (2016). Benign breast diseases: evaluation and management. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 59(4), 710-726. doi:10.1097/GRF.0000000000000233

Riley, T. (2018). Benign breast disease. Physician Assistant Clinics, 3(3), 363-371. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpha.2018.02.005

Santen R. J. (2018). Benign breast disease in women. In: De Groot, L. J., Chrousos, G., Dungan, K. (Eds.). Endotext. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK278994/

Seetharam, P., Rodrigues, G. (2015). Benign breast disorders: an insight with a detailed literature review. Breast, 6(1), WMC004806. doi: 10.9754/journal.wmc.2015.004806

Smania, M. A. (2017). Evaluation of common breast complaints in primary care. The Nurse Practitioner, 42(10), 8-15. doi: 10.1097/01.NPR.0000525961.99166.d1

Breast Disorders: Fibrocystic Breast Disease

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist. (2016). Practice Bulletin Number 164: Diagnosis and management of benign breast disorders. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 127(6), e141-e155. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001482

Bloom, C. (2015). Breast papillomas: a comprehensive review. Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography, 31(5), 282-289. https://doi.org/10.1177/8756479315599544

Hahn, M., Fugunt, R., Schoenfisch, B., Oberlechner, E., Gruber, I. V., Hoopmann, U., & Warzecha. H. (2018). High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of symptomatic breast fibroadenoma. International Journal of Hyperthermia, 35(1), 463-470. DOI: 10.1080/02656736.2018.1508757

Kiran, S., Jeong, Y. J., Nelson, M. E., Ring, A., Johnson, M. B., Sheth, P. A., & Lang, J. E. (2018). Are we overtreating intraductal papillomas? Journal of Surgical Research, 231, 387-394. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2018.06.008

Klassen C., Hines S., Ghosh K. (2019). Common benign breast concerns for the primary care physician. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 86, 57-65. Doi:10.3949/ccjm.86a.17100

Nassar, A., Visscher, D. W., Degnim A. C., et al. (2015). Complex fibroadenoma and breast cancer risk: a Mayo Clinic benign breast disease cohort study. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 153(2), 397-405. doi:10.1007/s10549-015-3535-8

Orr, B., Kelley, J. L. (2016). Benign breast diseases: evaluation and management. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 59(4), 710-726. doi:10.1097/GRF.0000000000000233

Riley, T. (2018). Benign breast disease. Physician Assistant Clinics, 3(3), 363-371. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpha.2018.02.005

Santen R. J. (2018). Benign breast disease in women. In: De Groot, L. J., Chrousos, G., Dungan, K. (Eds.). Endotext. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK278994/

Seetharam, P., Rodrigues, G. (2015). Benign breast disorders: an insight with a detailed literature review. Breast, 6(1), WMC004806. doi: 10.9754/journal.wmc.2015.004806

Smania, M. A. (2017). Evaluation of common breast complaints in primary care. The Nurse Practitioner, 42(10), 8-15. doi: 10.1097/01.NPR.0000525961.99166.d1

Breast Disorders: Intraductal Papilloma

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist. (2016). Practice Bulletin Number 164: Diagnosis and management of benign breast disorders. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 127(6), e141-e155. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001482

Bloom, C. (2015). Breast papillomas: a comprehensive review. Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography, 31(5), 282-289. https://doi.org/10.1177/8756479315599544

Hahn, M., Fugunt, R., Schoenfisch, B., Oberlechner, E., Gruber, I. V., Hoopmann, U., & Warzecha. H. (2018). High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of symptomatic breast fibroadenoma. International Journal of Hyperthermia, 35(1), 463-470. DOI: 10.1080/02656736.2018.1508757

Kiran, S., Jeong, Y. J., Nelson, M. E., Ring, A., Johnson, M. B., Sheth, P. A., & Lang, J. E. (2018). Are we overtreating intraductal papillomas? Journal of Surgical Research, 231, 387-394. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2018.06.008

Klassen C., Hines S., Ghosh K. (2019). Common benign breast concerns for the primary care physician. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 86, 57-65. Doi:10.3949/ccjm.86a.17100

Nassar, A., Visscher, D. W., Degnim A. C., et al. (2015). Complex fibroadenoma and breast cancer risk: a Mayo Clinic benign breast disease cohort study. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 153(2), 397-405. doi:10.1007/s10549-015-3535-8

Orr, B., Kelley, J. L. (2016). Benign breast diseases: evaluation and management. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 59(4), 710-726. doi:10.1097/GRF.0000000000000233

Riley, T. (2018). Benign breast disease. Physician Assistant Clinics, 3(3), 363-371. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpha.2018.02.005

Santen R. J. (2018). Benign breast disease in women. In: De Groot, L. J., Chrousos, G., Dungan, K. (Eds.). Endotext. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK278994/

Seetharam, P., Rodrigues, G. (2015). Benign breast disorders: an insight with a detailed literature review. Breast, 6(1), WMC004806. doi: 10.9754/journal.wmc.2015.004806

Smania, M. A. (2017). Evaluation of common breast complaints in primary care. The Nurse Practitioner, 42(10), 8-15. doi: 10.1097/01.NPR.0000525961.99166.d1

Cervical Cancer

ASCCP Risk-Based Management Consensus Guidelines Committee. (2020). 2019 ASCCP risk-based management consensus guidelines for abnormal cervical cancer screening tests and cancer precursors. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 24(2), 102-131. doi: 10.1097/LGT.0000000000000525

Beckmann, C. R., Ling, F. W., Herbert, W., Laube, D. W., Smith, R. P. Casanova, R., Weiss, P. M. (2018). Beckmann & Ling’s Obstetrics and Gynecology (8th ed.). Lippincott.

Bhatla, N., Aoki, D., Sharma, D. N., & Sankaranarayanan, R. (2018). Cancer of the cervix uteri. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 143(suppl 2), 22-36. doi: 10.1002/ijgo.12611

Boardman, C. H., & Matthews, K. J. (2019). Cervical cancer. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/253513-overview

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Cervical cancer. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/cervical/

FIGO Committee on Gynecology Oncology. (2019). A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia. FIGO staging for carcinoma of the vulva, cervix and endometrium. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 105, 103-104. http://screening.iarc.fr/viaviliappendix1.php

Ghelardi, A., Parazzini, F., Martella, F., Pieralli, A., Bay, P., Tonetti, A., . . . Joura, E. A. (2018). SPERANZA project: HPV vaccination after treatment for CIN2. Gynecologic Oncology, 151(2), 229-234. doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2018.08.033

Goldman, L., & Schafer, A. I. (2020). Goldman-Cecil Medicine, (26th ed.). Elsevier.

Meites, E., Szilagyi, P. G., Chesson, H. W., Unger, E. R., Romero, J. R., Markowitz, L. E. (2019). Human papillomavirus vaccination for adults: updated recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 68, 698-702. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6832a3external icon.

Moscicki, A., Flowers, L., Huchko, M., Long, M., MacLaughlin, K., Murphy, J., Spiryda, L., & Gold, M. (2019). Guidelines for cervical cancer screening in immunosuppressed women without HIV infection. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 23(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/LGT.0000000000000468

Siegel, R. L., Miller, K. D., & Jemal, A. (2019). Cancer statistics, 2019. CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 69(1), 7. doi: 10.3322/caac.21551

Thimm, M. A., Rositch, A. F., VandenBussche, C., McDonald, L., Garonzik Wang, J. M., & Levinson, K. (2019). Lower genital tract dysplasia in female solid organ transplant recipients. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 134(2), 385-394. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000003378

Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis

Acosta-Benito, M. (2016). Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis and other persistent vaginitis: A case report. International Journal of Women’s Health and Wellness, 2(4). DOI: 10.23937/2474-1353/1510029

Donders, G., Bellen, G., Grinceviciene, S., Ruban, K., & Viera-Baptista, P. (2017). Aerobic vaginitis: No longer a stranger. Research in Microbiology, 168(9-10), 845-858. doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2017.04.004

Mason, M. J. & Winter, A. J. (2017). How to diagnose and treat aerobic and desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 93(1), 8-10. DOI: 10.1136/sextrans-2015-052406

Mills, B. (2017). Vaginitis: Beyond the basics. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 44(2), 159-177. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2017.02.010

Mitchell, L., King, M., Brillhart, H., & Goldstein, A. (2017). Cervical ectropion may be a cause of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. Sexual Medicine, 5(3), e212-e214. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.esxm.2017.03.001

Paavonen, J., Brunham, R. C. (2020). Vaginitis in nonpregnant patients: ACOG Practice Bulletin Number 215. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 135(5), 1229-1230. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003857

Paavonen, J. & Brunham, R. C. (2018). Bacterial vaginosis and desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. New England Journal of Medicine, 379(23), 2246-2254. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1808418

Rice, A., Elwerdany, M., Hadoura, E. &Mahmood, T. (2016). Vaginal discharge. Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine, 26(11), 317-323. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ogrm.2016.08.002

Dysmenorrhea

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Committee Opinion No. 760. Dysmenorrhea and Endometriosis in the Adolescent. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 132(6), e249-e258. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002978

Calis, K. A. (2019). Dysmenorrhea treatment & management. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/253812-treatment

Daniels, S. E., Paredes-Diaz, A., Centofanti, R., Tajaddini, A. (2019). Significant, long-lasting pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea with low-dose naproxen sodium compared with acetaminophen: a double-blind, randomized, single-dose, crossover study. Current Medical Research and Opinion. 28, 11-9. doi: 10.1080/03007995.2019.1654987

Iacovides, S., Avidon, I., & Baker, F. C. (2015). What we know about primary dysmenorrhea today: A critical review. Human Reproduction Update, 21(6), 762-778. doi: 10:1093/humupd/dmv039

Jo, J., Lee, S. H. (2018). Heat therapy for primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis of its effects on pain relief and quality of life. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 16252. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-34303-z

Rafique, N., Al-Sheikh, M.H. (2018). Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea and its relationship with body mass index. Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecolic Research, 44(9), 1773-1778. doi: 10.1111/jog.13697

Schuiling, K. D., & Likis, F. E. (2017). Women's Gynecologic Health. (3rd ed.). Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Smith, R. P. (2015). Managing dysmenorrhea. Contemporary Ob/Gyn, 60(4). https://www.contemporaryobgyn.net/obstetrics-gynecology-womens-health/managing-dysmenorrhea

Wu, J. P., & Pickle, S. (2014). Extended use of the intrauterine device: A literature review and recommendations for clinical practice. Contraception, 89(6), 495-503. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2014.02.011

Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause

American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists. (2016; reaffirmed 2020). Committee Opinion No. 659. The use of vaginal estrogen in women with a history of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001351

American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists. (2014). Practice Bulletin No. 141. Management of menopausal symptoms. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 123(1),202-216. DOI: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000441353.20693.78

Constantine, G., Millheiser, L., Kaunitz, A., Parish, S., Graham, S., Bernick, B., & Mirkin, S. (2019). Early onset of action with a 17B-estradiol, softgel, vaginal insert for treating vulvar and vaginal atrophy and moderate to severe dyspareunia. Menopause: The Journal of the North American Menopause Society 26(11), 1259-1264. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001394

Faubion, S. S., Larkin, L. C., Stuenkel, C. A., Bachmann, G. A., Chism, L. A., Kagan, R., … Kingsberg, S. A. (2018). Management of genitourinary syndrome of menopause in women with or at high risk for breast cancer. Menopause, 25(6), 596-608. doi: 10.1097/gme.0000000000001121

Gandhi, J., Chen, A. Dagus, G., Yiji, S., Smith, N., Cali, B., & Khan, S.A. (2016). Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: an overview of clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, etiology, evaluation, and management. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 215(6), 704-711. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2016.07.045

Huang, A. J., Gregorich, S. E., Kuppermann, M., Nakagawa, S., Van Den Eeden, S. K., Brown, J. S., … Stewart, A. L. (2015). Day-to-Day Impact of Vaginal Aging questionnaire: a multidimensional measure of the impact of vaginal symptoms on functioning and well-being in postmenopausal women. Menopause, 22(2), 144-154. doi:10.1097/GME.0000000000000281

Lanzafame, R. J., Torre, S. D. L., & Leibaschoff, G. H. (2019). The rationale for photobiomodulation therapy of vaginal tissue for treatment of genitourinary syndrome of menopause: an analysis of its mechanism of action, and current clinical outcomes. Photobiomodulation, Photomedicine, and Laser Surgery, 37(7), 395-407. doi: 10.1089/photob.2019.4618

Nappi, R. E., Martini, E., Cucinella, L., Martella, S., Tiranini, L., Inzoli, A., … Gardella, B. (2019). Addressing vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA)/genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) for healthy aging in women. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 10, 561. doi:10.3389/fendo.2019.00561

Nappi, R. E., Biglia, N., Cagnacci, A., Di Carlo, C., Luisi, S., & Paoletti, A. M. (2016). Diagnosis and management of symptoms associated with vulvovaginal atrophy: expert opinion on behalf of the Italian VVA study group. Gynecological Endocrinology, 32(8), 602-606. doi:10.1080/09513590.2016.1183627

North American Menopause Society. (2017). The 2017 hormone therapy position statement of the North American Menopause Society. Menopause: The Journal of the North American Menopause Society, 24(7), 728-753. DOI: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000921

North American Menopause Society. (2013). Management of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy: 2013 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause: The Journal of The North American Menopause Society, 20(9), 888-902. DOI: 10.1097/gme.0b013e3182a122c2

Portman, D. J., & Gass, M. L. (2014). Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: new terminology for vulvovaginal atrophy from the International Society for the Study of Women’s Sexual Health and the North American Menopause Society. The Journal of the North American Menopause Society, 21(10), 1063-1068. DOI: 10.1097/gme.0000000000000329

Steele, N. M., Ledbetter, C. A., & Bernier, F. (2016). Genitourinary syndrome of menopause and vaginal estrogen use. Urology Nursing, 36(2), 59-65, 71.

Menopause

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 141: Management of menopausal symptoms. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 123(1), 202-16. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000441353.20693.78

Baill, I. C. & Castiglioni, A. (2017). Health maintenance in postmenopausal women. American Family Physician, 95(9), 561-570. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p561.html

Cobin, R. H., & Goodman, N. F. (2017). American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology Position Statement on Menopause–2017 update. Endocrine Practice, 23(7), 869-890. https://doi.org/10.4158/EP171828.PS

Goldstein, S. (2017). An efficient tool for the primary care management of menopause. Canadian Family Physician, 63, 295-298.

Hill, A. & Crider, M. (2016). Hormone therapy and other treatments for symptoms of menopause. American Family Physician, 94(11), 884-889. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p884.html

Lumsden, M. A., Davies, M., & Sarri, G. (2016). Diagnosis and management of menopause: The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guideline. JAMA Internal Medicine, 176(8), 1205-1206. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.2761

North American Menopause Society. (2017). The 2017 hormone therapy position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause: The Journal of The North American Menopause Society, 24(7), 728-753. DOI: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000921

Palacios, S., Stevenson, J. C., Schaudig, K., Lukasiewicz Graziottin, A. (2019). Hormone therapy for first-line management of menopausal symptoms: practical recommendations. Women’s Health, 15, 1-8. DOI: 10.1177/1745506519864009

Schadewald, D. M., Pritham, U. S., Youngkin, E. Q., Davis, M. S. & Juve, C. (2020). Women’s Health, A Primary Care Clinical Guide. (5th ed.). Pearson Education.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2017). Hormone therapy for the primary prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA, 318(22), 2224-2233. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.18261

Normal Menstrual Cycle

Alexander, I. M., Johnson-Mallard, V., Kostas-Polston, E. A., Ingram Fogel, C. & Fugate Woods, N. (Eds.) (2017). Women’s Health Care in Advanced Practice Nursing. (2nd ed.). Springer Publishing.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). ACOG Committee Opinion 785. Screening and management of bleeding disorders in adolescents with heavy menstrual bleeding. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 134(3), e71-e83. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003411

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). ACOG Committee Opinion 651. Menstruation in girls and adolescents: using the menstrual cycle as a vital sign. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2015/12/menstruation-in-girls-and-adolescents-using-the-menstrual-cycle-as-a-vital-sign

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). Patient Resources. Heavy menstrual bleeding. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Heavy-Menstrual-Bleeding?IsMobileSet=false

Reed, B. G., et al. (2018). The normal menstrual cycle and the control of ovulation. Endotext. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279054/

Ovarian Cancer

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 716. The role of the obstetrician-gynecologist in the early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer in women at average risk. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 130(3), 664-665. doi:10.1097/AOG. 0000000000002289

Atri, M., Alabousi, A., Reinhold, C., Akin, E., Benson, C., Bhosale, P., Kang, S., Lakhman, Y., Nicola, R., Pandharipande, P., Patel, M., Salazar, G., Shipp, T., Simpson, L., Sussman, B., Uyeda, J., Wall, D., Whitcomb, B., Zelop, C., & Glanc, P. (2019). ACR appropriateness criteria for clinically suspected adnexal mass, no acute symptoms. Journal of American College of Radiology, 16(5), S77-S93. doi: 10.1016/j.jacr.2019.02.011

Chyke, A., Doubeni, C., Doubeni, A., & Myers, A. (2016). Diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer. American Family Physician, 93(11), 937-944. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0601/p937.pdf

National Cancer Institute. (2020). Ovarian epithelial, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer treatment. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK65718/

National Cancer Institute. (2019). SEER stat fact sheets: Ovarian cancer. http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/ovary.html

U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. (2019). United States Cancer Statistics: 2012-2016 cancer incidence and mortality data. https://gis.cdc.gov/Cancer/USCS/DataViz.html

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2019). Risk assessment, genetic counseling, and genetic testing for BRCA-related cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation statement. Journal of the American Medical Association, 322(7), 652-655. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.10987

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2018). Screening for ovarian cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Journal of the American Medical Association, 319(6), 588-594. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.21926

Pap Test Screening Guidelines

Agorastos, T., Chatzistamatiou, K., Katsamagkas, T., Koliopoulos, G., Daponte, A., Constantinidis, T., Null, N. (2015). Primary screening for cervical cancer based on high-risk human papilloma (HPV) detection and HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotyping in comparison to cytology. PLOS One, 10(3), 1-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119755

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). Committee on Practice Bulletins-Gynecology. Practice Bulletin No. 168: Cervical cancer screening and prevention. Obstetrics Gynecology, 128(4), e111-e130. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001708

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2012). ACOG Practice Bulletin No: 131: Screening for cervical cancer. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 120(5), 1222-38. doi: http://10.1097/AOG.0b013e318277c92a

ASCCP Risk-Based Management Consensus Guidelines Committee. (2020). 2019 ASCCP risk-based management consensus guidelines for abnormal cervical cancer screening tests and cancer precursors. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 24(2), 102-131. doi: 10.1097/LGT.0000000000000525

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Cervical cancer screening guidelines for average risk women. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/cervical/pdf/guidelines.pdf

Huh, W. K., Ault, K. A., Chelmow, D., Davey, D. D., Goulart, R. A., Garcia, F., Einstein, M. H. (2015). Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: Interim clinical guidance. Gynecologic Oncology, 136(2), 178-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2014.12.022

Saslow, D., Solomon, D., Lawson, H. W., Killackey, M., Kulasingam, S. L., Cain, J. M., Waldman, J. (2012). American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 16(3), 175-204. Doi: 10.1097/LGT.0b013e31824ca9d5

U.S. Department of Health and Human Resources. (2018). Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in adults and adolescents with HIV. https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/html/4/adult-and-adolescent-opportunistic-infection/343/hpv

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2018). Final recommendation statement. Cervical cancer: screening. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/cervical-cancer-screening2

World Health Organization. (2019). Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/human-papillomavirus-(hpv)-and-cervical-cancer

Wright, T. C., Stoler, M. H., Behrens, C. M., Sharma, A., Zhang, G., & Wright, T. L. (2015). Primary cervical cancer screening with human papillomavirus: end of study results from the ATHENA study using HPV as the first-line screening test. Gynecologic Oncology, 136(2), 189-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2014.11.076

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 194. Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 131(6), e157-e171. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002656

Conway, G., Dewailly, D., Diamanti-Kandarakis, E., Escobar-Morreale, H. F., Franks, S., Gamineri, A., Yildiz, B. O. (2014). The polycystic ovarian syndrome: A position statement from the European Society of Endocrinology. European Journal of Endocrinology 171(4), 1-29. Doi: 10.1530/EJE-14-0253

Hollier A. (Ed.) (2018). Polycystic ovarian syndrome. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Escobar-Morreale, H. F. (2018). Polycystic ovary syndrome: definition, aetiology, diagnosis and treatment. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 14(5), 270-284. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2018.24

Fitzgerald, S., DiVasta, A., & Gooding, H. (2018). An update on PCOS in adolescents. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 30(4), 459-465. https://doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000636

Goodman, N. F., Cobin, R. H., Futterweit, W., Glueck, J. S., Legro, R. S., & Carmina, E. (2015). American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Endocrinology, and Androgen Excess and PCOS Society disease state clinical review: guide to the best practices in the evaluation and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome part 1. Endocrine Practice, 21(11), 1291-1300. https://doi.org/10.4158/EP15748.DSC

Goodman, N. F., Cobin, R. H., Futterweit, W., Glueck, J. S., Legro, R. S., & Carmina, E. (2015). American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Endocrinology, and Androgen Excess and PCOS Society disease state clinical review: guide to the best practices in the evaluation and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome part 2. Endocrine Practice, 21(12),1415-1426, https://doi.org/10.4158/EP15748.DSCPT2

Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2017). Role of metformin for ovulation induction in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a guideline. Fertility and Sterility, 108(3), 426-441.

Teede, H. J., Misso, M. L., Costello, M. F., Dokras, A., Laven, J., Moran, L., ... & Norman, R. J. (2018). Recommendations from the international evidence-based guideline for the assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Human Reproduction, 33(9), 1602-1618.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Birth control chart. https://www.fda.gov/consumers/free-publications-women/birth-control-chart

Premenstrual Syndrome/Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

Appleton, S. M. (2018). Premenstrual syndrome: evidence-based evaluation and treatment. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 61(1), 52-61. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000339

Eisenlohr-Moul, T. A., Girdler, S. S., Schmalenberger, K. M., et. Al. (2017). Toward the reliable diagnosis of DSM-5 premenstrual dysphoric disorder: The Carolina Premenstrual Assessment Scoring System (C-PASS). American Journal of Psychiatry, 174(1), 51-59. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.15121510

Epperson, C. N. & Hantsoo, L. V. (2017). Making strides to simplify diagnosis of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174(1), 6-7. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.16101144

Hantsoo, L. & Epperson, C. N. (2015). Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Epidemiology and treatment. Current Psychiatry Reports, 17(11), 87. doi: 10.1007/s11920-015-0628-3

Hofmeister, S., & Bodden, S. (2016). Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. American Family Physician, 94(3), 236. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0801/p236.html

Jang, S. H., Kim, D. I., & Choi, M. S. (2014). Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Systematic review. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14, 11. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-11

Maharaj, S., Trevino, K. (2015). A comprehensive review of treatment options for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Practice. 21(5), 334-350. DOI: 10.1097/PRA.0000000000000099

Steiner, M., Peer, M., Palova, E., Freeman, E. W., MacDougall, M., & Soares, C. N. (2011). The premenstrual symptoms screening tool revised for adolescents (PSST-A): prevalence of severe PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in adolescents. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 14(1), 77-81. DOI: 10.1007/s00737-010-0202-2

Yonkers, K. A., Kornstein, S. G., Gueorguieva, R., Merry, B., Van Steenburgh, K., Altemus, M. (2015). Symptom-onset dosing of sertraline for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder: A multi-site, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association for Psychiatry, 72(10), 1037-1044. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.1472

Vaginal Foreign Body

Bandarkar, A. N., Adeyiga, A. O., & Shalaby-Rana, E. (2017). Ureterovaginal fistula secondary to retained vaginal foreign body in a young girl. Radiology Case Reports, 12(4), 720–725. doi: 10.1016/j.radcr.2017.07.015

Haraux, E., Delforge, X., Braun, K., Zitoun, M., Klein, C., & Sanguin, S. (2018). Diagnostic dilemma of long-retained vaginal foreign body: value of MRI. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 57(1), 166-167. doi: 10.1016/j.tjog.2017.12.030

Hull, A. (2019). 50 years of pessary use. Urologic Nursing, 39(5), 265-269. doi:10.7257/1053-816X.2019.39.5.265

Lo, T.-S., Jaili, S. B., Ibrahim, R., Kao, C. C., & Uy-Patrimonio, M. C. (2018). Ureterovaginal fistula: a complication of a vaginal foreign body. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 57(1), 150-152. doi: 10.1016/j.tjog.2017.12.026

Mantas, P., Rocha, S., Oliveira, E., & Lopes, A. (2018). Occult foreign body: a rare cause of recurrent vulvovaginitis. Anales De Pediatría (English Edition). doi: 10.1016/j.anpede.2018.11.005

Nakib, G., Calcaterra, V., & Pelizzo, G. (2017). Longstanding presence of a vaginal foreign body (battery): severe stenosis in a 13-year-old girl. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 30(1), e15–e18. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2016.08.015

Pennesi, C. M., Kenney, B., Thakkar, R., Ching, C., Hewitt, G., & Mccracken, K. (2018). Prolonged vaginal bleeding in an adolescent secondary to a foreign body: need for a comprehensive assessment and complex surgery. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 31(6), 640-643. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2018.07.004

Semaan, A., Klein, T., Vahdad, M. R., Boemers, T. M., & Pohle, R. (2015). Severe vaginal burns in a 5-year-old girl due to an alkaline battery in the vagina. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 28(5). doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2014.12.001

Wankhade, V. K., & Chikhalkar, B. (2018). Body packing and intra-vaginal body pushing of cocaine: a case report. Legal Medicine, 31, 10-13. doi: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.12.004

Yang, X., Sun, L., Ye, J., Li, X., & Tao, R. (2017). Ultrasonography in detection of vaginal foreign bodies in girls: a retrospective study. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 30(6), 620-625. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2017.06.008

Vulvar Cancer

Alkatout, I., Schubert, M., Garbrecht, N., Weigel, M. T., Jonat, W., Mundhenke, C., & Günther, V. (2015). Vulvar cancer: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options. International Journal of Women's Health, 7, 305. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S68979

Brinton, L. A., Thistle, J. E., Liao, L. M., & Trabert, B. (2017). Epidemiology of vulvar neoplasia in the NIH-AARP Study. Gynecologic Oncology, 145(2), 298-304. doi: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2017.02.030

De Witte, C. J., Van De Sande, A. J. M., Van Beekhuizen, H. J., Koeneman, M. M., Kruse, A. J., & Gerestein, C. G. (2015). Imiquimod in cervical, vaginal and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: a review. Gynecologic Oncology, 139(2), 377-384. doi: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2015.08.018

Di Donato, V., Casorelli, A., Bardhi, E., Vena, F., Marchetti, C., Muzii, L., & Panici, P. B. (2017). Bartholin gland cancer. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 117, 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2017.06.005

Dudley, S., & Viswanathan, A. (2019). Mains in vulvar cancer: Challenges to classical clinicopathologic vulvar recurrence risk factors. Gynecologic Oncology, 154(2), 253-254.

Hinten, F., Molijn, A., Eckhardt, L., Massuger, L. F. A. G., Quint, W., Bult, P., & de Hullu, J. A. (2018). Vulvar cancer: two pathways with different localization and prognosis. Gynecologic Oncology, 149(2), 310-317. doi: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2018.03.003

Mathews, C. A., & Walker, J. L. (2017). Preinvasive disease of the vagina and vulva and related disorders. Clinical Gynecologic Oncology E-Book, 20. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-323-40067-1.00002-4

Nazeran, T., Cheng, A. S., Karnezis, A. N., Tinker, A. V., & Gilks, C. B. (2019). Bartholin gland carcinoma: Clinicopathologic features, including p16 expression and clinical outcome. International Journal of Gynecological Pathology, 38(2), 189-195. doi: 10.1097/PGP.0000000000000489

Pounds, R., Tahir, S., Dawson, C., Woodman, C., Luesley, D., & Yap, J. (2018). A survey on the use of topical steroids in patients treated for lichen sclerosus-associated vulval squamous cell carcinoma. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 38(2), 265-269. doi: 10.1080/01443615.2017.1352572

Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). Committee Opinion No. 675. Management of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Gynecologic-Practice/Management-of-Vulvar-Intraepithelial-Neoplasia

Ayala, M., Fatehi, M. (2020). Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK540982/

Beckmann, C., Ling, F., Herbert, W., Laube, D., Smith, R., Casanova, R., Chuang, A., Goepfert, A., Hueppchen, N., Weiss, P. (2018). Beckmann and Ling’s Obstetrics and Gynecology. (8th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Bornstein, J., Bogliatto, F., Haefner, H. K., Stockdale, C. K., Preti, M., Reuter, J. (2016). The 2015 International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) terminology of vulvar squamous intraepithelial lesions. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 20(1), 264-268. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000001285

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Human papillomavirus. In: Manual for the Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt05-hpv.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Vaginal and vulvar cancers. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/vagvulv/statistics/

Committee on Gynecologic Practice of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. (2012). Management of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 16(1), 1-3. doi:10.1097/LGT.0b013e31823abb27

Darragh, T. M., Colgan, T. J., Cox, J. T., Heller, D. S., Henry, M. R., & Luff, R. D. (2012). The lower anogenital squamous terminology standardization project for HPV-associated lesions: background and consensus recommendations from the College of American Pathologists and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 16(3), 205-242.

National Institutes of Health. (n.d.). Cancer stat facts: vulvar cancer. https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/vulva.html

Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus

Borghi, A., Corazza, M. (2020). Novel therapeutic approaches and targets for treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. DOI: 10.2174/1389201021666200516154310

Chamli, A., Souissi, A. (2020). Lichen sclerosus. StatPearls. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30855834/

Chi, C., Kirtschig, G., Baldo, M., Brackenbury, F., Lewis, F., Wojnarowska, F. (2011). Cochrane review: Topical treatments for genital lichen sclerosus. https://www.cochrane.org/CD008240/SKIN_topical-treatments-genital-lichen-sclerosus

Funaro, D., Lovett, A., Leroux, N., & Powell, J. (2014). A double-blind, randomized perspective study evaluating topical clobetasol 0.05% versus topical tacrolimus 0.1% in patients with vulvar lichen sclerosis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 71(1) 84-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2014.02.019

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Vulvar lichen sclerosus. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Kirtschig, G. (2016). Lichen sclerosus-presentation, diagnosis and management. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 113(19), 337-43. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2016.0337

Kohn, J. R., McClatchey, T. M., Chan, W., Liang, C. S., Dao, H. (2018). Vulvar lichen sclerosus in gynecology and dermatology clinics: the link between treatment compliance and outcomes. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 131. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000533386.27483.e8

Kwok, R., Shah, T. T., Minhas, S. (2020). Recent advances in understanding and managing lichen sclerosus. F1000Res. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.21529.1

Lee, A., Bradford, J., & Fischer, G. (2015). Long-term management of adult vulvar lichen sclerosus. JAMA Dermatology, 151(10), 1061-1067. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.0643

Lewis, F., Tatnal, F., Velangi, S., Bunker, C., Kumar, A., Brackenbury, F., Mustapa, M., & Exton, L. (2018). British Association of Dermatologists guidelines for the management of lichen sclerosus. British Journal of Dermatology, 178(4), 839-853. doi: 10.1111/bjd.16241

Pappas-Taffer, L. K. (2018). Lichen sclerosus. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1123316-overview

Preti, M., Vieira-Baptista, P., Digesu, G. A., Bretschneider, C. E., Damaser, M., Demirkesen, O., Heller, D. S., Mangir, N., Marchitelli, C., Mourad, S., Moyal-Barracco, M., Permeateu, S., Tailor, V., Tarcan, T., De, E., Stockdale, C. K. (2019). The clinical role of laser for vulvar and vaginal treatments in gynecology and female urology: An ICS/ISSVD Best Practice Consensus Document. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 23(2), 151-160, doi: 10.1097/LGT.0000000000000462

Virgilli, A. Corazza, M., Minghetti, S. & Borghi, A. (2015). Growing evidence for topical mometasone furoate in the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosis. Maturitas, 80, 113-115. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.09.005

Vyas, A. (2017). Genital lichen sclerosus and its mimic. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 44, 389-406. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2017.05.004

Vulvodynia

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). Committee Opinion No. 673. Persistent vulvar pain. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 128(3), 676-677. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001639

Bornstein, J., Goldstein, A. T., Stockdale, C. K., Bergeron, S., Pukall, C., Zolnoun, D., Coady, D. (2016). 2015 ISSVD, ISSWSH, and IPPS consensus terminology and classification of persistent vulvar pain and vulvodynia. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 13(4), 607. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2016.02.167

Falsetta, M. L., Foster, D. C., Bonham, A. D., & Phipps, R. P. (2017). A review of the available clinical therapies for vulvodynia management and new data implicating proinflammatory mediators in pain elicitation. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 124, 210-218. DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.14157

Fariello, J. Y. & Moldwin, R. M. (2015). Similarities between interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and vulvodynia: implications for patient management. Translational Andrology and Urology, 4(6), 643-562. DOI: 10.3978/j.issn.2223-4683.2015.10.09

Goldstein, A. T., Pukall, C. F., Brown, C., Bergeron, S., Stein, A., & Kellogg-Spadt, S. (2016). Vulvodynia: assessment and treatment. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 13(4), 572-590. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2016.01.020

Reed, B. D., Legocki, L. J., Plegue, M. A., Sen, A., Haefner, H. K., Harlow, S. D. (2014). Factors associated with vulvodynia incidence. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 123(2). DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000066

Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2006; reaffirmed 2019). ACOG practice bulletin Number 72. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists: Vaginitis. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 107(5), 1195. doi:10.1097/00006250-200605000-00049

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Vaginal candidiasis. https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/genital/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). 2015 Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines: Vulvovaginal candidiasis. https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/candidiasis.htm

Dains, J., Baumann, L., & Scheibel, P. (2020). Vaginal discharge and itching. In Advanced Health Assessment and Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care. (6th ed.). (pp. 507- 518). Elsevier.

Decherney, A., Nathan, L., Laufer, N., & Roman, A. (2019). Vaginal Disorders: Vaginitis- Candidiasis. In Current Diagnosis and Treatment Obstetrics and Gynecology. (12th ed.). (pp. 650-651). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

Fuller, F., & Schlesselman, F. (2019). Superficial fungal infections. In Chisolm-Burns, M. A., Schwinhammer, P. M., Malone, J. M., Kolesar, Lee, K. C. & Bookstaver, P. B. (Eds.). Pharmacotherapy: Principles and Practice (5th ed.). (pp. 1243-1249). McGraw-Hill.

Jeanmonod, R., Jeanmonod, D. (2020). Vaginal candidiasis (vulvovaginal candidiasis). StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459317/

Khan, Z., Bhargava, A., Mittal, P., Bharti, R., Puri, P., Khunger, N., & Bala, M. (2019). Evaluation of reliability of self-collected vaginal swabs over physician-collected samples for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis, in a resource-limited setting: A cross-sectional study in India. British Medical Journal, 9, e025013. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025013

Lines, A., Vardi-Flynn, I., Searle, C. (2020). Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. BMJ, 369:m1995. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1995

Lopez, J. (2015). Candidiasis (vulvovaginal). British Medical Journal of Clinical Evidence. 2015, 0815. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360556/

Paladine, H. & Desai, U. (2018). Vaginitis: diagnosis and treatment, American Family Physician. 97(5), 321-329. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/p321.html

Sobel, J., Pappas, P., Kauffman, C., et al. (2016). Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 62(4), e1-e50. https://doi.org/10.1093/ cid/civ933

Zhang, Z., Zhang, X., Zhou, Y., Jiang, C., & Jiang, H., (2019). The safety of oral fluconazole during the first trimester of pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.15913

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